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<p>DIVERSITY OF LIPIDS IN ALGAEAakanksha1, Shilpi Samantray2, Supriya Guruprasad 2 &amp; T.V Ramachandra22 Energy &amp; Wetland1 Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi Research Group, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012</p> <p>Algae can be classified on the basis of :</p> <p>INTRODUCTIONAlgae are: Microalgae represent an exceptionally diverse but highly specialized group of micro-organisms adapted to various ecological habitats .</p> <p>Size of the algal cell Pigment color Presence of flagella Life cycle Stored material Cell wall composition</p> <p>Crytogamous Ubiquitous Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic Photosynthetic Reproduce asexually sometimes sexually Planktonic or Benthic</p> <p>\ Algae can be used as the feedstocks for the biodiesel because of its behavior of synthesizing and accumulating large amount of lipids , high growth rates, tolerance to very adverse conditions, production of value adding products. Algal population can be affected by the environmental factors like seasonal changes, nutrient availability , light penetration etc. Algae are primarily made up of proteins carbohydrates, fats and lipids in varying proportions. They can accumulate large amount of protein about 47% of total biomass. In algae the organic carbon is represented by carbohydrates, polysaccharides , nitrogenous and polyphenolic materials . The diversity of algal lipids and its ability to modify the lipid composition according to environment made them ubiquitous. Green algae are the most important oleaginous algae.Cyanophyta</p> <p>CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAEALGAE</p> <p>Chlorophyta</p> <p>Cryptophyta</p> <p>Bacillariophyta</p> <p>Haptophyta</p> <p>Dinophyta</p> <p>Eustigmatophyta</p> <p>Lipids in AlgaeThe ability of algae to survive or proliferate over a wide range of environmental conditions is, to a large extent, reflected in the tremendous diversity and sometimes unusual pattern of cellular lipids as well as the ability to modify lipid metabolism efficiently in response to changes in environmental conditions</p> <p>Classification of lipids Lipids of algae Polar lipids are mainly the part of membrane lipids. These are synthesized during normal conditions. They constitute about 5-20% o f the cell. Membrane lipids are mainly in the form of Glycosylglyserides which resides in chloroplast of the cell and other membrane lipid is phosphoglyserides which resides in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic membrane. Neutral lipids are synthesized during adverse conditions. These lipids get accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cell in the form of densely packed bodies. Sometimes they can be stored in the inter-thylakoidal space of the chloroplast of some green algae. Neutral lipids can be TAGs or hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons constitute about 5% of the total biomass. TAGs are the potential feedstocks for the biodiesel production. Hydrocarbon Sterol Factors affecting lipid compositionIn algae genetic constituent decides the lipid content and composition in normal growth conditions. In adverse situation the factors which decides the lipid composition is nutrients, light intensity, temperature, growth phase and physiological conditions. The nutrient which basically affects the lipid composition is nitrogen, phosphate, silicate. The concentration of silicate affects the Diatom only. Starvation of these nutrients helps in accumulation of neutral lipids. With increasing temperature saturation of fatty acids starts increasing. Low light intensity induces the formation of polar lipids. During stationary phase amount of TAGs increases.References</p> <p>Polar Lipid</p> <p>Non Polar Lipid</p> <p>Phospholipid Sphingolipid</p> <p>Triacylglycerol</p> <p>Glycolipid</p> <p>Fatty acids are the building blocks of lipids. Algae contain fatty acid having chain length C16- C18. Fatty acid can be saturated or unsaturated depending on the presence of double bonds between carbon atoms. Saturated and Mono unsaturated fatty acids are dominating in algae. Major applications of algal lipids Algal neutral lipids (TAGs) are the potential source of biofuels TAGs constitute about 80% of the total lipids found in algal cell . The TAGs having saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids are used for biofuels production. Algae oils have been found to be very high in unsaturated fatty acid . Some of these fatty acids are found in different algae species include : arachidonic acid , eicospentaenoic acid, docasahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. The PUFAs found in algal species are omega 3, omega 4, omega 5, omega 6, omega 7, omega 9, omega 13. Among these PUFAs omega 3 and omega 6 are essential fatty acids, which acts as nutrient supplement in mariculture. Some PUFAs ( omega 3 and sometimes omega 6) acts as essential fatty acids which provides nutrient supplement . The dominating fatty acids in bacillariophyta is C16:0,C16:1,C20:5 3 and C22:6 3, in eustigmatophyta C16:0, C18:1, C20:3, and C20:4 3, in chlorophyta C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 3, in cryptophyta C16:0, C20:1, C18:3 3, C18:4, and C20:5, in dinophyta C16:0, C18:5 3 and C22:6 3, in cyanophyta C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3 3.</p> <p>Fatty acid C10:0 C11:0 C12:0 C14:0 C14:1 C14:2 C15:0 C16:0 C16:1 5 C16:1 7 C16:1 9 C16:2 4 C16:2 7 C16:3 C17:0 C18:0 C18:1 7 C18:1 9 C18:1 13 C18:2 6 C18:3 3 C18:3 6 C18:4 3 C18:5 3 C20:0 C20:1 C20:4 6 C20:5 3 C22:5 3 C22:6 3 C24:0</p> <p>Bacillariophyta</p> <p>Eustigmatophyta</p> <p>Chlorophyta</p> <p>Haptophyta</p> <p>Cyanophyta + + +</p> <p>Cryptophyta</p> <p>Dinophyta</p> <p>C16:0 C18:0 C16:0</p> <p>C18:1 C18:1 C18:1</p> <p>C18:1 C16:0 C18:1</p> <p>C18:1 C18:1 C18:1</p> <p>C18:2 C18:1 C18:0</p> <p>C18:1 C16:0 C18:1</p> <p>C16:0 C16:0 C18:0</p> <p>C18:0 C18:1 C18:2</p> <p>C18:0 C16:0 C18:1</p> <p>C16:1 C18:1 C16:0</p> <p>C20:1 C18:1 C18:0</p> <p>Ben-Amotz, A., Shaish, A. and Avron, M. (1989) Mode of action of the massively accumulated b-carotene of Dunaliella bardawil in protecting the alga against damage by excess irradiation. Plant Physiol. 91, 10401043. Borowitzka, M. (1988) Fats, oils and hydrocarbons. In Microalgal Biotechnology (Borowitzka, M.A. and Borowitzka, L.J., eds).Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 257287.</p> <p>+</p> <p>+</p> <p>+</p> <p>+</p> <p>+</p> <p>+C18:1 C18:O C16:1 C16:0 C18:1 C18:2 C16:0 C18:2 C16:0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:2 C18:1 C16:0 C16:1 C16:0 C18:1 C18:1 C18:2 C18:2 C18:1 C14:0 C18:0 C18:1 C16:0 C18:1 C18:1 C16:0 C16:0 C18:2 C18:1 C14:0</p> <p>+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +</p> <p>Brown, M.R., Dunstan, G.A., Norwood, S.J. and Miller, K.A. (1996) Effects of harvest stage and light on the biochemical composition of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. J. Phycol. 32, 6473. Cobelas, M.A. and Lechado, J.Z. (1989) Lipids in microalgae. A review. I. Biochemistry. Grasas y Aceites, 40, 118145.</p> <p>C18:2</p> <p>C18:0 C18:0 C16:0</p> <p>C18:2 C16:0 C18:1</p> <p>C18:1 C18:2 C18:1</p> <p>C18:1 C18:0 C16:O</p> <p>C18:1 C16:1 C18:1</p> <p>C18:1 C16:0 C18:1</p> <p>C18:1 C18:1 C18:1</p> <p>C16:0 C16:0 C18:1</p> <p>C18:0 C18:0 C18:0</p> <p>C18:1 C16:0 C16:0</p> <p>C18:1 C18:1 C18:1</p> <p>Craigie,J.S., and Mclaclam, J. (1964). Excretion of colored ultravioletabsorbing substances by Marine algae. Can.J.Bot. 42: 23-33. Guckert, J.B. and Cooksey, K.E. (1990) Triacylglyceride accumulation and fatty acid changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high-pH induced cell cycle inhibition. J. Phycol. 26, 7279. Harwood, J.L. (1998) Membrane lipids in algae. In Lipids in Photosynthesis: Structure, Function and Genetics (Siegenthaler, P.A. and Murata, N., eds). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Publishers, pp. 5364. Kathen, M. (1949) U ber die Ermittelung der chemischen Konstitution von Algenlipoiden mit Hilfe derAdsorptionsmethode. Arch.Mikrobiol. 14, 602634. Lee, R.F. and Loeblich, A.R. III (1971) Distribution of 21:6 hydrocarbon and its relationship to 22:6 fatty acid in algae. Phytochemistry, 10, 593 602. Lynch, D.V. and Thompson, G.A. (1982) Low temperatureinducedalterations in the chloroplast and microsomal membranes of Dunaliella salina. Plant Physiol. 69, 13691375. Mansour, M.P., Volkman, J.K. and Blackburn, S.I. (2003) The effect of growth phase on the lipid class, fatty acid and sterol composition in the marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium sp. in batch culture. Phytochemistry, 63, 145153 Ohlrogge, J. and Browse, J. (1995) Lipid biosynthesis. Plant Cell, 7, 957 970. Roessler, P.G. (1987) UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica: pathway of chrysolaminarin biosynthesis. J. Phycol. 23, 494498.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONAlgae are known as the potential source of Lipids. The lipid classes are present in all the algal species are C16:0, C16:1 7, C18:1 9, C18:3 3, C18:3 6. They have the ability to produce TAG as a storage lipid under photo-oxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta and Cyanobacteria are the most favored algae by the researcher for biofuels production due to their high lipid content. Some of these unsaturated fatty acids that are found in different algal species include: arachidonic acid, eicospentaenoic acid, docasahexaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid. TAGs are the Microalgal feedstock of Biodiesel production and PUFAs provides essential fatty acids. Shift in lipid metabolism from membrane lipid synthesis to the storage of neutral lipids takes place in adverse situation. Acknowledgement I want to thank entire EWRG for their valuable suggestions.+</p> <p>Source Table : showing the fatty acids present in different algae Google</p> <p>LAKE 2010: WETLANDS, BIODIVERSITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE</p>