Social Agents for Learning in Virtual Environments - GALA2016

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<ul><li><p>Social Agents for Learning in Virtual Environments</p><p>Agnese Augello1, Manuel Gentile2 , Frank Dignum31ICAR - National Research Council of Italy, </p><p>2ITD - National Research Council of Italy3Utrecht University, The Netherlands</p></li><li><p>Outline</p><p>Learning social and communication skills</p><p>Social skills training and SGs</p><p>The proposed solution: SALVE</p><p>Architecture</p><p>Some examples</p></li><li><p>Why social skills?</p><p>interpersonal, social and </p><p>communicative competences </p><p>social, psychological </p><p>and occupational well-being are </p><p>ensured by</p><p>academic or professional success are predicted by</p></li><li><p>Social skills training theories</p><p>Behavioral shaping Skinner</p><p>Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition Wolpe</p><p>Assertion or assertiveness training </p><p>Wolpe &amp; Lazarus</p><p>Social learning theory Bandura</p></li><li><p>A classical social skills training procedure</p><p>Assessment</p><p>Direct Instruction and Coaching</p><p>Modeling</p><p>Role PlayingHomework assignment &amp; Follow-up</p></li><li><p>Role Playing</p><p>to practice the desired behaviours in a controlled setting </p><p>problemsdifficult expensive</p><p>Serious games</p></li><li><p>e.g. Scripted based design</p><p>Social and communication skills training &amp; SG</p><p>Behavioural oriented Serious </p><p>Games</p><p>Behavioural oriented Serious </p><p>Games Design</p><p>Skinner</p><p>Wolpe</p><p>Wolpe &amp; Lazarus</p><p>Bandura</p></li><li><p>Behavioural oriented Serious Games Design</p><p>Pros Cons</p><p>Knowledge design and </p><p>reuse</p><p>The organization of the interaction facilitates the </p><p>designof the scenariohides the knowledge at its base</p><p>Interaction with the </p><p>virtual agentThere is a fine control of the </p><p>scenario (e.g. the conversation)</p><p>The agent behaviour are predetermined and the </p><p>interaction becomes repetitive after few uses.</p><p>Player Experience</p><p>Specific user's behaviours can be trained</p><p>Players have no freedom. The game experience is quite different from a real one </p></li><li><p>Role of social context in conversation in communication</p><p>The dialogue is a joint activity that must consider both individual and social processes</p><p>Different communication strategies can be used according to the specific social context</p><p>The same sentence can be used with a different meaning in different context and can raise different social effects</p><p>You should take a cat</p></li><li><p>A different approach to implement the conversational agent: SALVE</p><p>Putting social practices at the heart of the deliberation allows for more efficient </p><p>planning (Dignum and Dignum, 2014)</p><p>Social Agents for Learning in Virtual Environments</p></li><li><p>The social practice model</p></li><li><p>Chatbot as a possible solution?</p><p>1966 Eliza</p><p>1988 Jabberwacky</p><p>1992 - Dr. Sbaitso</p><p>1995 - A.L.I.C.E.</p><p>2001 - Activebuddys Smarterchild</p><p>2011 - Watson, Siri</p><p>2012 - Google Now</p><p>2015 - Amazon Alexa , Microsoft Cortana</p><p>2016 More than 18.000 Bots on Im, Messanger and Facebook</p></li><li><p>Chatbot as a possible solution?</p><p>Strength It is possible to quickly create a </p><p>conversational agent, avoiding natural language processing issues </p><p> It is easy to define the chatbotbehaviour through the design of proper question answers modules (Alice -&gt; AIML categories)</p><p>Weaknesses Chatbots lacks the ability to keep an </p><p>overview and a structure of the entire conversation. </p><p> In AIML the dialogue is managed keeping track of the last conversation exchange and setting conversation topics.</p><p> It is difficult to design chatbots able to correctly manage social conversational practices.</p><p>MY NAME IS *</p><p>HELLO THERE WHAT IS YOUR NAMENice to meet you </p></li><li><p>Architecture of the SALVE system</p></li><li><p>Architecture of the SALVE system</p><p>Using chatbot just as aninteraction interfaceExtend the AIML language thatdescribes the chatbot ruleswith social tags such that itkeeps track where it is in thesocial practice (towards state based dialogue)</p></li><li><p>Architecture of the SALVE system</p><p>Integrate chatbot with a rulebased engine (DROOLS) tokeep track of the agent statesand guide it the socialpractice</p></li><li><p>How social practice guides SG design</p></li><li><p>How social practice guides SG design</p></li><li><p>How social practice guides SG design</p><p>start end</p><p>greetings</p><p>present</p><p>Get patientdata</p><p>Determinesymptoms</p><p>Determinetreatment</p><p>Communicate!</p></li><li><p>How social practice guides SG design</p><p>start end</p><p>greetings</p><p>present</p><p>Get patientdata</p><p>Determinesymptoms</p><p>Determinetreatment</p></li><li><p>Examples of S-AIML</p></li><li><p>Example rules: Timely greetingslead to positive emotions</p><p>rule "GreetingsReceivedInTime"</p><p>when</p><p>$startScene:EnterScene(scene.name=="greetings")</p><p>$g:GreetingsReceived(this after[0ms,20000ms] $startScene )</p><p>then</p><p>controller.print($startScene.getScene().getName());</p><p>controller.print("greeting received in the first 20 seconds after the start of the scene");</p><p>OOCHappenedEvent he=new OOCHappenedEvent();</p><p>don(he,DesirableEvent.class);</p><p>don(he,ProspectedRelevantEvent.class);</p><p>insert(he);</p><p>controller.print("greeting marked as happened desirable prospected event");</p><p>insert(new ChangeOfSceneFromGoal());</p><p>end</p></li><li><p>Example rules: Timely greetingslead to positive emotions</p><p>rule "GreetingsReceivedInTime"</p><p>when</p><p>$startScene:EnterScene(scene.name=="greetings")</p><p>$g:GreetingsReceived(this after[0ms,20000ms] $startScene )</p><p>then</p><p>controller.print($startScene.getScene().getName());</p><p>controller.print("greeting received in the first 20 seconds after the start of the scene");</p><p>OOCHappenedEvent he=new OOCHappenedEvent();</p><p>don(he,DesirableEvent.class);</p><p>don(he,ProspectedRelevantEvent.class);</p><p>insert(he);</p><p>controller.print("greeting marked as happened desirable prospected event");</p><p>insert(new ChangeOfSceneFromGoal());</p><p>end</p><p>rule "DesirableEventHappened"when </p><p>OOCHappenedEvent(this isAProspectedIrrelevantEvent,this isA DesirableEvent)</p><p>$agent:Emotion(this isA Agent)then</p><p>controller.print("captured desirable event");$agent.setJoy($agent.getJoy()+1);controller.print("increase joy");controller.setJoy($agent.getJoy());</p><p>end</p></li><li><p>Example rules: Greetings not received in time lead to negative emotions</p><p>rule "GreetingsNotReceivedInTime"</p><p>when</p><p>$startScene:EnterScene(scene.name=="greetings")</p><p>(not(GreetingsReceived(this after[0ms,20000ms] $startScene ))</p><p>then</p><p>controller.print("greeting not received in the first 20 seconds after the start of thescene");</p><p>OOCNotHappenedEvent nhe=new OOCNotHappenedEvent();</p><p>don(nhe,DesirableEvent.class);</p><p>don(nhe,ProspectedRelevantEvent.class);</p><p>insert(nhe); </p><p>controller.print("dummy event marked as not happened desirable prospected event");</p><p>controller.respond("why you did not say hello!");</p><p>end</p></li><li><p>Example rules: Greetings not received in time lead to negative emotions</p><p>rule "GreetingsNotReceivedInTime"</p><p>when</p><p>$startScene:EnterScene(scene.name=="greetings")</p><p>(not(GreetingsReceived(this after[0ms,20000ms] $startScene ))</p><p>then</p><p>controller.print("greeting not received in the first 20 seconds after the start of thescene");</p><p>OOCNotHappenedEvent nhe=new OOCNotHappenedEvent();</p><p>don(nhe,DesirableEvent.class);</p><p>don(nhe,ProspectedRelevantEvent.class);</p><p>insert(nhe); </p><p>controller.print("dummy event marked as not happened desirable prospected event");</p><p>controller.respond("why you did not say hello!");</p><p>end</p><p>rule "DesirableProspectedEventNotHappened"when </p><p>$d:OOCNotHappenedEvent(this isA ProspectedRelevantEvent, this isA DesirableEvent)</p><p>$agent:Emotion(this isA Agent)then</p><p>controller.print("captured not happened desirable event");$agent.setDisappointment($agent.getDisappointment()+1);controller.print("increased Disappointment");controller.setDisappointment($agent.getDisappointment());</p><p>end</p></li><li><p>Empathic opportunities are givenand can be taken or ignored</p></li><li><p>SALVE architecture</p></li><li><p>SALVE architecture</p></li><li><p>SALVE architecture</p></li><li><p>SALVE architecture</p></li><li><p>Conclusion and future work 1/2</p><p>The proposed solution:puts social practice at the heart of the deliberative process of </p><p>an agent;allows for a dynamic activation of categories, depending on the </p><p>current social practice, the pursued plan, the on-going activity, and finally, at the lowest level the agents identity;</p><p>allows for a great flexibility in the conversation while at the same time simplifying the formalization of the chatbot KB;</p><p>ensures to the player a greater freedom in sentences expression, and the possibility to experiment dynamic scenarios and different roles;</p><p>Lets the player actively create a conversation rather than choose moves</p></li><li><p>Conclusion and future work 2/2</p><p>Future work:finalize the implementation of the serious game according to a proper learning design approach;Improve the social practices representations;create a tool to support the designervalidate the proposed approach</p></li></ul>

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