the elements of poetry

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  • 1. TheElementsof Poetry

2. Poetry in Popular Culture 3. Public Poetry 4. The Greek Poet Sappho (7th century BCE)Our Poetic History 5. Meeting Poetry Ourwords poem and poetry are derived fromthe Greek poiein, to create or make, astructure that is created from the humanimagination and that is expressed rhythmicallyin words. The word poet originally referred to the writerof any kind of literature, although it nowmeans someone who writes poetry (642). 6. History of English Poetry Earliest poems in English date to the Old English period (450-1100 CE) Many reflected the influence of Christianity From the Middle Ages (1100-1500) poets wrote about manyBeowulf, the anonymous epic poem is the most subjects, including famous poem religious themes 7. Reading Poetry Responsively 8. Dont be intimidated by poetry. Remember, each of us brings our ownideas, interpretations, history, and knowledge tothe reading of a poem it, like all literature, isnever really finished until it is read. First Steps: Read straight through to get a general sense ofthe poem Ask questions about thetitle, speaker, words, descriptions, sounds, setting, form, structure Read aloud and listen for the rhythm of the words Develop theories about the particular elements ofthe poem create a paraphrase orbrief explication 9. Here a Pretty Baby Lies (1648) Robert Herrick (1594-1664)Here a pretty baby liesSung asleep with lullabies:Pray be silent, and not stirTheasy earth that covers her. 10. WordsThe Building Blocks of Poetry 11. Diction (Choice of Words)Specific & ConcreteGeneral & Abstract Specific language: General language:refers to objects or signifies broad classes ofconditions that can be persons, objects, andperceived or imaginedphenomena Concrete diction: Abstract diction: refers todescribes conditions orqualities that are rarefiedqualities that are exact and theoreticaland particular Poems tend to be Poems tend to be detached andvisual, familiar, andcerebral, deal withcompelling universal questions or emotions 12. Levels of Diction Elevated & ElaborateHigh or Formal Follows exact rules of syntax Stresses Simplicity Avoids elevated tones Middle or Neutral Also avoidsslang, colloquialisms, contractions, jargon, fadsof speech Language of common, everyday useLow or Informal Usesslang, contractions, swearwords, grammaticalerrors 13. Special Types of DictionIdiom Dialect Unique forms of Regional anddiction and word group usage andorder pronunciationSlang JargonInformal and Special language substandard and terminology ofvocabulary / idiom groups 14. Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now(1896) A.E. Housman (1859-1936) Loveliest of trees, the cherry now Is hung with bloom along the bough, And stands about the woodland ride Wearing white for Eastertide. Now, of my threescore years and ten, Twenty will not come again, And take from seventy springs a score, It only leaves me fifty more. And since to look at things in bloom Fifty springs are little room, About the woodland I will go To see the cherry hung with snow. 15. Syntax (Word Order &Sentence Structure) Parallelism = most often considered repetition produces lines or portions of lines that make strongimpressions because of the repetition of certain words orphrases also the repetition of verb endings packing of words to add multiple meaningsSo on we worked, and waited for the light,And went without the meat, and cursed the bread~ Richard Cory (Robinson) 16. Antithesis = a contrasting situation or idea that brings out surprise, shock, or climax works with parallelismSo on we worked, and waited for the light,And went without the meat, and cursed the bread;And Richard Cory, one calm summer night,Went home and put a bullet through his head. ~ Richard Cory (Robinson) 17. Denotation & Connotation Denotation = the actual, literal, dictionary meaning of a word Connotation = the cultural, emotional, psychological, social, and historical overtones of a word 18. Decorum Decorum = beautiful, appropriate Words and subjects should bein perfect accord Formal words for serioussubjects Informal words for lowsubjects and comedy William Wordsworthtransformed poetry in the19th century, opening thedoor for topics and languageof people from allclasses,with specialstress oncommon folk. (1770-1850) William Wordsworth 19. Daffodils (I Wandered Lonely asa Cloud) 1807 William Wordsworth (1770-1850) And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils. 20. Still I Rise (1987) Maya Angelou (b. 1928) Still I RiseYou may write me down in historyWith your bitter, twisted lies,You may trod me in the very dirtBut still, like dust, I rise. Maya Angelou 21. Hazel Tells Lavernelast night Katharyn Machanim cleanin out myhoward johnsons ladies roomwhen all of a suddenup pops this frogmusta come from the sewerswimmin aroun an tryin taclimb up the sida the bowlso i goes ta flushm downbut sohelpmegod he starts talkinbout a golden ballan how i can be a princessme a princesswell my mouth dropsall the way to the flooran he sayskiss me just kiss meonce on the noseThe Princess and the Frogwell i screamsya little green pervertam i hitsm with my mopan has ta flushthe toilet down three timesmea princess 22. The Passionate Shepherd to His LoveCharacters & SettingWho, What, Where & When in Poetry 23. Characters Setting Speakeror persona Setting reflects Most significant Time character in a poem Place (1) Inside Speaker Thought uses the first-person Social Conventions voice and is involved in the poems actions Generalcircumstances of the Outside Speaker third- characters lives person perspective Religion (2) Listener imagined person, not the Economic reader, whom the circumstances speaker is addressing Condition of the (3) Major & Minornatural world Participants can be human or nonhuman 24. On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City Sherman Alexiesomebody from the enemy thought I was one of their own. 25. The Ruined Maid (1866) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)O didnt you know Idbeen ruined, said she. Thomas Hardy 26. The Passionate Shepherd to HisLove (1599)Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)Come live with me andbe my love,And we will all thepleasures proveThe Passionate Shepherd to His Love 27. The Nymphs Reply to theShepherd (1600) Sir Walter Raleigh (1522-1618)If all the world and love wereyoung,And truth in every shepherdstongue,These pretty pleasures mightme moveTo live with thee and be thy Sir Walter Raleighlove. 28. Sensory ImagesImageryThe Poems Link to the Senses 29. Types of Imagery Sensory Imagery. Visual = Sight Auditory = Sound Olfactory, Gustatory, and Tactile =Smell, Taste, and Touch Kinetic and Kinesthetic = Motion and Activity 30. Channel Firing(1914) Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)That night your great guns, unawares,Shook all our coffins as we lay,And broke the chancel window-squares,We thought it was the Judgment DayAnd sat upright. 31. Seven Horizons (2006) Stephen Stepanchev (b. 1915)Here in Flushing I let the rainWash away my rotting selves,The rubble of what I was, the thickDeeps of silence among the ruins,The seven layers of abandonmentNo archeologist will ever read. 32. Its Only Rock and Roll, but I LikeIt: The Fall of Saigon (1975, 1990) David Wojahn (b. 1953)An ice-cream suitedSaigonese drops his briefcase; both handsNow cling to the airborne skis. The camera getsIt all: the marine leaning out the copter bay,His fists beating time. Then the hands giving way. 33. Metaphorical LanguageThe Source of Depth and Range in Poetry 34. Metaphor A metaphor equates known objects or actionswith something that is unknown or to beexplained. A metaphor not only explains and illuminates thething being described but also offers distinctive,original, and often startling ways of seeing it andthinking about it.All the worlds a stage / and all the men andwomen merely players. ~ As You Like It, Shakespeare 35. Shall I Compare Thee to a Summers Day? (1609) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) Shall I compare thee to a summers day? Thou are more lovely and more temperate 36. SimileAsimile illustrates the similarity or comparability of the known to something unknown or to be explained by using the words like or as /as if/as though She walks in beauty, like the nightOf cloudless climes and starry skies;~ She Walks in Beauty, Lord Byron 37. Bright Star (1819, 1838) John Keats (1795-1822)Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art Not in lone splendor hung aloft the night,And watching, with eternal lids apart,Like Natures patient, sleepless eremite, 38. Paradox A paradox is a figurative device through whichsomething apparently wrong or contradictory isshown to be truthful and non-contradictory.We look before and after,And pine for what is not:Our sincerest laughterWith some pain is fraught;Our sweetest songs are those that tell ofsaddest thought.~ To a Skylark, Percy Bysshe Shelley 39. On Monsieurs Departure (c. 1560) ElizabethTudor, QueenElizabeth I (1533-1603)I grieve and dare not show my discontent,I love and yet am forced to seem to hate,I do, yet dare not say I every meant,I seem stark mute but inwardly do prate. I am and not, I freeze and yet am burned, Since from myself another self I turned. 40. Anaphora Anaphora = the repetition of the same word or phrasethroughout a work in order to lend weight andemphasisYes, we had laughed often day and nightYes, we fought violence and knew violenceYes, we hated the inner and outer oppression~ Looking at Each Other, Muriel Rukeyser 41. Apostrophe In an apostrophe a speaker addresses a real orimagined listener who is not present in the work. Creates the drama of a speaker addressing anaudience.I almost wish we were butterflies and livd but threesummer days - three suchdays with you I could fill withmore delight than fiftycommon years could evercontain. ~ John KeatsBright Star film clip 42. London, 1802 (1802) William Wordsworth (1770-1850)Milton! thou shouldst b