westward expansion: the “manifest destiny of americans?”

Click here to load reader

Post on 17-Dec-2015

221 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • WESTWARD EXPANSION: The Manifest Destiny of Americans?
  • Slide 2
  • Slide 3
  • Manifest Destiny a phrase used by leaders and politicians in the 1840s to explain continental expansion by the United States revitalized a sense of "mission" or national destiny for Americans.
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • The people of the United States felt it was their mission to extend the "boundaries of freedom" to others by imparting their idealism and belief in democratic institutions to those who were capable of self-government.
  • Slide 6
  • But there were other forces and political agendas at work as well. As the population of the original thirteen Colonies grew and the economy developed, the desire and attempts to expand into new land increased.
  • Slide 7
  • After the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, ample land seemed available for the taking For many colonists, land represented potential income, wealth, self-sufficiency and freedom.
  • Slide 8
  • Even before Lewis and Clark finished their epic journey to the Pacific, mountain men were traveling up and down the Missouri River in search of fur.
  • Slide 9
  • They were a rough-hewn bunch of adventurous entrepreneurs- -that came to be called "Mountain Men."
  • Slide 10
  • These solitary fur-trappers lived thousands of miles from civilization. Most had no home, no money and no possessions except what they could carry on their backs. They lived completely off the land
  • Slide 11
  • In 1806, Zebulon Pike was sent west to explore the great plains and Rocky Mountains.
  • Slide 12
  • Unfortunately, in his reports Pike referred to the plains as "the Great American Desert," a name that stuck. Even though much of the region is nothing like a desert, people back east conjured up images of sand dunes and cactus. No emigrant in their right mind would try to cross a severe wasteland--and so the big move west was delayed.
  • Slide 13
  • Pike's opinion that the west was a vast desert was confirmed by Maj. Steven Long, who led an expedition west in 1819.
  • Slide 14
  • Long and his men passed through what is now Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas and Oklahoma. He concluded that the entire region was unfit for human habitation.
  • Slide 15
  • The second major westward expedition was was backed by the world's richest man--John Jacob Astor. Astor had read about Lewis and Clark's journey and by 1810 he saw an opportunity to make money.
  • Slide 16
  • His plan was to set up a fur-trading enterprise at the mouth of the Columbia River. Just one problem--how to get his men across the uncharted American West.
  • Slide 17
  • Robert Stuart led the Astor expedition. Along the way, Stuart made an incredible discovery--he found a 20-mile wide gap in the Rocky Mountains--the one passage where wagons could get through. Named South Pass, this find would become the key to western migration.
  • Slide 18
  • Explorer John Fremont became one of America's biggest heroes because of his journeys west. (He got the job largely because his wife's father was the powerful Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton.)
  • Slide 19
  • Benton believed America had an innate right to all the lands of the west, an idea that came to be called "Manifest Destiny." And so Fremont was under strict orders to make the west seem attractive--worth settling
  • Slide 20
  • Even though the reports bear his name, Fremont didn't write them. He gave up and left the work to his wife--the intelligent and articulate Jesse Benton Fremont. It was she as much as anyone who lit the spark of America's big move west.
  • Slide 21
  • In addition, Horace Greeley, founding editor of the New York Tribune, one of the first "penny daily" newspapers, influenced his nearly one million readers throughout the United States with his ideas about the lure and value of westward expansion
  • Slide 22
  • In the 1840s, he urged an entire generation to "Go West, young man!" Do not lounge in the cities! There is room and health in the country, away from the crowds of idlers and imbeciles. Go west, before you are fitted for no life but that of the factory. (New York Tribune, 1841)
  • Slide 23
  • In 1845, California appeared on the map as a northern province of Mexico. Already there was a small but prosperous community of Spanish-speaking cattle ranches.
  • Slide 24
  • Slide 25
  • The Oregon country was a huge tract of wilderness that extended north from California to the Alaska border. No one knew for certain to whom the land really belonged
  • Slide 26
  • It was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain who had signed an unusual treaty of joint occupation. The American pioneers were really emigrants leaving their own country to a foreign land
  • Slide 27
  • The influx of Americans into Oregon in the 1840s ignited a dispute that eventually led to demands by both countries for war.
  • Slide 28
  • The dispute originated in the fact that the boundaries of Oregon had ever been clearly fixed. The southern boundary of Russia extended to the 54 degree, 40 minute parallel of latitude.
  • Slide 29
  • The Democratic Party even made the phrase, Fifty Four, Forty, or Fight their 1844 campaign slogan The dispute was quietly settled with the boundary set at 49 degrees; the original proposal by the United States.
  • Slide 30
  • When Oregon itself became an official section of the United States in 1846, the 2,000 miles of the Oregon Trail made it the longest thoroughfare in the republic.
  • Slide 31
  • The first emigrants to Oregon came by ship before a trail was established. Ships continued to to travel to Oregon even after the overland migrations began, but they were not popular among the pioneers.
  • Slide 32
  • First, the fare for a sea journey to Oregon was quite expensive few pioneer families could afford it. Second, most Oregon-bound pioneers came from the central states far from any sea port. Lastly, the sea journey often took up to full year versus 4-6 months by wagon.
  • Slide 33
  • The journey west on the Oregon Trail and California Trail was exceptionally difficult by today's standards. One in 10 died along the way; many walked the entire two-thousand miles.
  • Slide 34
  • The overland move began in 1841 when a party of 69 hardy souls left Missouri, led by a farmer, John Bartleson, and a schoolteacher, John Bidwell.
  • Slide 35
  • Slide 36
  • The financial collapse and depression of 1837 had prompted people to look for opportunities in the west, but the discovery of gold in California in 1848 sent the emigration numbers up to 55,000 per year over the Oregon Trail !
  • Slide 37
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Over the next 25 years more than a half million people went west on the western trails. Some went all the way to Oregon's Willamette Valley in search of farmland many more split off for California in search of gold.
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • Still other emigrants headed west because of religious persecution in the United States. The Mormons (members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) were driven from their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois in 1846.
  • Slide 42
  • The church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith
  • Slide 43
  • but its ideas about communal economics and plural marriage drew hostility from non- believers.
  • Slide 44
  • Slide 45
  • After Joseph Smith was arrested and murdered by an angry mob in Illinois
  • Slide 46
  • the religious group resolved to move westward, often by handcarts
  • Slide 47
  • where three years later, Salt Lake City would be built as their new home.
  • Slide 48
  • The political and religious leader Brigham Young would oversee the building of a prosperous city and state of Utah
  • Slide 49
  • ON THE TRAIL
  • Slide 50
  • There was no great highway across the continent; merely a pair of parallel wheel ruts traced by wagons across the sod of the prairies.
  • Slide 51
  • Slide 52
  • The Missouri River heads due west from St. Louis; so most emigrants loaded their wagons onto steamships for the upstream journey. It was easy traveling, but it didn't last long. Two-hundred miles from St. Louis, the Missouri takes a cruel turn to the north.
  • Slide 53
  • Further upstream was Westport, St. Joseph, Omaha and Council Bluffs.The economies of these frontier towns depended on emigrants passing through
  • Slide 54
  • Each spring these small hamlets became raucous boomtowns as thousands of emigrants camped for days, or weeks while getting ready to begin the journey. (Independence was by far the most popular point of departure in the trail's early years.)
  • Slide

View more