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WWI Begins. Ch 16 Sec 2. A Europe Divided. 1914 – 2 Rival Groups Triple Entente Great Britain, France, Russia Triple Alliance Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. The Great War Begins. Chain Reaction A-H declares war on Serbia Russia moves army toward border w/A-H - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Ch 16 Sec 2

  • 1914 2 Rival GroupsTriple EntenteGreat Britain, France, RussiaTriple AllianceGermany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

  • Chain ReactionA-H declares war on SerbiaRussia moves army toward border w/A-HMobilizes toward Germany in anticipation of declaration of warGermans view this as declaration of warAug 1 Germany declares war on RussiaAug 3 Germany declares war on FranceAug 4 - GB declares war on Germany

  • Mid-August 1914, battle lines were drawnCentral PowersAt first, Germany and A-HLater, Bulgaria and Ottoman EmpireHoped to gain land

  • AlliesGB, France, Russia, JapanItaly Accuses Germany and A-H of unjustly starting warJoins the allies

  • The Schlieffen PlanGen. Alfred Graf von SchlieffenGerman army would race west to defeat FranceThen fight Russia in the eastSpeed vitalQuickest route through BelgiumRefuse to allow them to passGermany invades

  • Schlieffen Plan works at firstAug 1914Germans overran Belgium and moved into FranceSept. 3 Germans on edge of Paris

  • Battle of the MarneSept 5Allies attack Germans northeast of Paris2000 taxis used to transport troops from ParisSept. 9 Germans order retreat

  • Single-most important event of the warDefeat of Germans left Schlieffen Plan in ruinsQuick victory no longer possibleRussians had invaded Germany2-Front war

  • Fall 1914War turned into long and bloody stalemateWestern FrontDeadlocked region in Northern France

  • War in the Trenches1915 Trench WarfareMiles of parallel trenches along Western FrontOffer protectionHuge losses for small land gainsMiserable lifeMen slept in mudratsNo fresh foodSleep nearly impossible

  • No Mans LandSpace between trenchesMen go over the top to crossMet by machine-gun fireMany dieBombed trenches

  • New tools of war kill thousandsMachine gunsPoison gasArmored tanksLarger artillery

  • Feb. 1916 German attack at Verdun300,000 die on both sidesGermans advance 4 milesJuly 1916 - Battle of the Somme20,000 British die in one day500,000 on both sides by NovemberBritish gain 5 miles

  • Eastern FrontGerman and Russian BorderRussians and Serbs vs. Germans, Austro-Hungarians, TurksMore mobile than Western Front

  • Central Powers gain the advantageAug. 1914 Germans force Russian retreat30,000 Russians killedSept 1914 Russians defeat AustriansDrive deep into AustriaDec 1914 Austria turns the tide17-day battle near LimanowaDefeat Russians and drive eastJan. 1915 push Russians out of Austria

  • 1916 - Russias war effort near collapseRussia not industrializedShort on food, guns, ammo, clothes, boots, blanketsAllies unable to ship supplies to RussiaRussia had only one assetHuge numbers prevent Germans from focusing on Western Front