ex. 9: appendicular skeleton

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This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton) Ex. 11 (Articulations and body movements) by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; [email protected] 1

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This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test . Ex . 9 (Appendicular skeleton ) Ex . 10 (Fetal skeleton) Ex . 11 (Articulations and body movements ) by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; [email protected]. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton) Ex. 11 (Articulations and body movements)

by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; [email protected]

1

Page 2: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Ex. 9: Appendicular skeleton

2

Page 3: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Required bones and markings are highlighted in 3 different colors--

1. Individual bones in green

3. Depressions, passages, and cavities in red (fissure, foramen, fossa, sinus, etc.)

2. Articulations, extensions, and projections in yellow (condyle, crest, facet, process, etc.)

3

Page 4: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Superior angle

Acromion

Spine

Acromion

Inferior angle

The right scapula;Anterior view

The right scapula; Posterior view

Suprascapularnotch

Coracoidprocess

GlenoidCavity (Fossa)

Anterior surface

Lateralborder

Medialborder

Superiorborder

Supraspinousfossa

Lateralangle

Posterior surface

Right vs. Left--In order to determine if a scapula is right or left, orient it so the glenoid cavity (articulating surface) faces laterally (outward) and the spine is posterior (toward back) and superior (upper). The coracoid process should be anterior and superior. The spine points at 2 o’clock (Right side of the clock) for the right scapula, and at 10 o’clock (Left side of the clock) for the left scapula.

4

Page 5: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

5Practice 01

• Name the bone above: _________;

• left or right side of body? ________;

Rig

ht

scap

ula

Page 6: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Acromial (lateral) end Sternal end

Right vs. Left-- Orient the clavicle so the smooth (no grooves and ridges) superior surface faces up. Then, the rounded sternal (medial) end should face medially while the broad and flat acromial (lateral) end faces laterally. Finally, the medial half of the clavicle should bulge OUT (convex anteriorly) first followed by its lateral half bulges IN (concave posteriorly).

Is the above clavicle from the left or right side of the body?

6

Rig

ht

Page 7: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

A right scapula or left scapula (as shown below)?

A right clavicle or left clavicle (as shown above)?

7Practice 02

Rig

ht sc

apul

a an

d le

ft

clav

icle

Page 8: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Capitulum

Head

TrochleaHumerus;

anterior viewHumerus;

posterior view

GreatertubercleLessertubercle

Intertubercularsulcus

Deltoidtuberosity

Coronoidfossa

RadialfossaLateralepicondyle

Surgicalneck

GreatertubercleAnatomicalneck

Nutrientforamen

Deltoidtuberosity

Medialsupracondylar

ridge

Medialepicondyle

Lateralsupracondylarridge

LateralepicondyleOlecranonfossa

8

Page 9: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Name the bone above. ____________9Practice 03

Page 10: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Right vs. Left-- First orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Then you will need to determine the anterior vs. posterior side. On the humerus, look for the deep olecranon fossa on the posterior side (where the olecranon process of the ulna fits in when the elbow is straightened). The specimen below is from the right side.

10

Page 11: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Olecranon (process) Olecranon (process)

(a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view

Articular facets

Ulna

Radius

Ulnar tuberosity

Coronoid process

Trochlear notchRadial notchof ulnaHead ofradiusNeck ofradiusRadialtuberosity

Styloidprocess

Interosseousborders

Interosseousmembrane

Ulnar notchof radius

Head of ulnaStyloid process

Styloidprocess

Head ofradius

Neck ofradius

11

Page 12: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(a) Anterior view (b) Posterior viewPractice 04 12

Page 13: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

I

IIIIIIVV

Distal phalanx II

Middle phalanx II

Proximal phalanx II

Head

Body

Base

Hamulus of hamateHamate

PisiformTriquetrum

Lunate

Capitate

Trapezoid

Trapezium

Body

Head

Scaphoid

Base

Phalanges (fingers)

Key to carpal bonesDistal row

Proximal row

Distalphalanx I

Proximalphalanx I

Firstmetacarpal

Carpalbones

Metacarpals (palms) I-V

Carpals (wrist)bones

The right wrist and hand, anterior (palmar, ventral) view

Pollex

Mnemonic for carpal bones– Sally Left The Party (proximal row); To Take Charlie Home (distal row) 13

Page 14: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Key to carpal bonesDistal row

Proximal row

The right wrist and hand, anterior (palmar, ventral) view

14

Practice 05

Page 15: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Ilium

Ischium

Coccyx

Body

Ischial ramus

Pubis

The pelvis (two coxal/hip bones and the sacrum); anterosuperior view

Pubic symphysis

Acetabulum

Ischial spine

Pelvic inlet

Sacroiliac joint

Body

Superior ramusInferior ramus

Iliaccrest

Iliacfossa

Anteriorsuperior

iliac spine

Anterior inferioriliac spine

Base ofsacrum

Pelvic surfaceof sacrum

Interpubicdisc

Obturatorforamen

Each coxal/hip bone is formed by three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis.

15

Pubic crest

Page 16: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

ID this bone—

The pelvis (two coxal/hip bones and the sacrum); anterosuperior view

ID this bone—

16Practice 06

Page 17: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Male Female

50-60° 80-90°Pubic arch

Obturator foramen

Pelvic inletPelvic brim

17

Page 18: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

A right or left hip bone (as shown)?

Rig

ht h

ip b

one

18Practice 07

Right vs. Left-- In order to determine if a hip bone is right or left, place the bone on yourself with the iliac crest superior, hold it with acetabulum facing laterally (outward), and the obturator foramen inferior (down). Now all you need to do is determine which side is anterior vs. posterior, which can be done by looking for the rough pubic symphysis (anterior) that is at the midline to meet its fellow hip bone of the other side.

Page 19: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Ilium Ischium Pubis

Greater sciatic notch

Ischial spine

Ischial tuberosity

Body of ischium

Lesser sciatic notch

Iliac crest

Body of ilium

Body of pubis

Inferior gluteal line

Posterior gluteal line

Posterior superioriliac spine

Posterior inferioriliac spine

Acetabulum

Ischial ramus

Anterior glutealline

Anterior superioriliac spine

Anterior inferioriliac spine

Superior ramusof pubis

Inferior ramusof pubis

Obturator foramen

Right coxal bone, lateral view19

Page 20: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Ilium Ischium Pubis

Right coxal bone, lateral view20Practice 08

Page 21: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Greater sciatic notch

Iliac crest

Arcuate line

Ischial spine

Iliac fossa

Anterior superioriliac spine

Anterior inferioriliac spine

Location ofpubic symphysis

Posterior superioriliac spine

Auricular surfacePosterior inferior

iliac spine

Obturator foramen

Ischial ramus

21

Pubic crest

Right coxal bone, medial view

Page 22: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

22Right coxal bone, medial view

Practice 09

Page 23: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Greater trochanter

Intertrochanteric line

Lateral epicondylePatellar surface

(b) Posterior view

Lateral epicondyle

Medial supracondylar line

Lateral condyle

Linea aspera

Intertrochanteric crest

Gluteal tuberosity

Greater trochanterHead

Fovea capitis

NeckLesser

trochanterSpiral line

Shaft

Medial epicondyle

Popliteal surface

Medial condyle

Intercondylar fossa

Patella Articular facets

Apex of patella

Lateral supracondylarline

(a) Anterior view23

Page 24: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Posterior view

Right vs. Left-- In order to distinguish right from left, first orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Then you will need to determine the anterior vs. posterior side. On the femur, look for the patellar surface, which is anterior. Also note how the articulating surfaces of the condyles extends far back on the posterior side (since the knee bends back but not forward). The specimen below is from the right side.

ID the bone—

Practice 10 24

Page 25: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Lateral condyleApexHead of fibula

Intercondylar eminence

Lateral surface

Distal tibiofibular joint

Lateral malleolus

Fibula

Anterior border (crest)

Lateral malleolus

(b) Posterior view

Proximal tibiofibularjoint

Tibia

Medial malleolus

Medialcondyle

Tibialtuberosity

Interosseousmembrane

(a) Anterior view25

Mnemonic for location of tibia and fibula:The fibuLA is LAteral.

Page 26: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Anterior view

Right vs. Left-- You need to tell right from left for the tibia. To do so, first orient the tibia so that the larger flatter end is superior (up). The anterior border (crest or shin) should of course be anterior (front). Finally, the medial side can be determined by the medial malleolus (remember that the malleoli bracket the ankle and since the tibia is the medial bone of the lower limb, its malleolus must be medial). A right tibia is shown below.

Practice 11 26

Page 27: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Key to tarsal bonesDistal group

Proximal group

Distal phalanx I

Proximal phalanx I

Metatarsal

Medial cuneiform

Intermediate cuneiformLateral cuneiformNavicular

Talus

Superior (dorsal) view

Calcaneus

Cuboid

VIV

IIIIII

Trochlear surfaceof talus

Tuberosity of calcaneus

Proximalphalanx V

Middlephalanx V

Distalphalanx V

Tarsal bones

Hallux

Mnemonic for tarsal bones– CAn TALented NAVal MEDIcs INTERest LAzy CUBscouts? 27

Page 28: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Key to tarsal bonesDistal group

Proximal group

Superior (dorsal) view

Practice 12 28

Page 29: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Ex. 10: Fetal skeleton

29

Page 30: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Parietal bone

Temporal bone

Occipital boneMaxilla

Mandible

(a) Lateral view

CoronalsutureFrontalboneSphenoidfontanelNasalbone

Zygomaticbone

Sphenoidbone

Lambdoidsuture

Squamoussuture

Mastoidfontanel

30

Page 31: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Metopic suture

Anterior fontanel

Sagittal suture

Posterior (occipital) fontanel

(b) Superior view

Parietalbone

31

Page 32: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(b) Superior view

(a) Lateral view

32Practice 13

Page 33: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Ex. 11: Articulations and body movements

33

Required structures are highlighted.

Page 34: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Periosteum

Ligament

Bone

Proximalphalanx

Joint cavitycontaining

synovial fluid

Fibrouscapsule

Articularcartilages

Jointcapsule

Synovialmembrane

Middlephalanx

34

Page 35: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Femur

Patellar surface

Medial condyle

Fibula

Tibia

Medial meniscus

(a) Anterior view

Lateralcondyle

Fibularcollateralligament

Lateralmeniscus

Transverseligament

Posterior cruciateligamentAnterior cruciateligament

Tibial collateralligament

Patellar ligament(cut)

35

Page 36: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(a) Anterior view 36Practice 14

Page 37: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(b) Posterior view

Femur

Fibula

Tibia

Lateral meniscus

Anterior cruciateligament

Fibular collateralligament

Articular cartilageof tibia

Medialcondyle

Tibialcollateralligament

Medialmeniscus

Posteriorcruciateligament

37

Page 38: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Femur

Meniscus

Tibia

Joint cavity

Infrapatellar fat pad

Synovial membrane

Patellar ligament

Patella

Prepatellar bursa

Articular cartilage

Joint capsule

(c) Sagittal section

Bursa under lateralhead of gastrocnemius

Quadricepsfemoris

Quadricepsfemoris tendon

Suprapatellarbursa

Superficialinfrapatellar bursa

Deepinfrapatellar bursa

38

Page 39: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Medial meniscus

Lateral meniscus

(d) Superior view of tibia and menisci

Posterior cruciateligament

Synovialmembrane

Medial condyleof tibia

Anterior cruciateligament

Lateral condyleof tibia

39

Page 40: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Head of humerus

Scapula

1. Ball-and-socket joints– • Features: Smooth hemispherical head fits within a cuplike

depression• Examples:

– (shoulder) head of humerus into glenoid cavity of scapula (shown below)

– (hip) head of femur into acetabulum of hip bone

40

Page 41: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Phalanx

Metacarpal bone

2. Condylar joints– • Features: Oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly

shaped depression on the next • Examples:

– radiocarpal joint of the wrist – metacarpophalangeal joints at the bases of the fingers

(shown below)

41

Page 42: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Trapezium

Metacarpal bone

3. Saddle joints– • Features: Each articular surface is shaped like a saddle, concave

in one direction and convex in the other bone (like a sitting rider)• Example:

– trapeziometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb (as shown below)

42

Page 43: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Carpal bones

4. Gliding (plane) joints—• Features: Flat articular surfaces in which bones slide over each

other• Examples:

– between the carpal bones of the wrist (shown below) – the tarsal bones of the ankle – articular processes of the vertebrae

43

Page 44: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Humerus

Ulna

5. Hinge joints—• Features: One bone with convex surface that fits into a concave

depression on other bone• Examples:

– ulna and humerus at elbow joint (trochlea of the humerus fits into the trochlear notch of the ulna) (shown below)

– femur and tibia at knee joint (tibiofemoral)

44

Page 45: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

UlnaRadius

6. Pivot joints–• Features: One bone rotates on its longitudinal axis relative to the

other• Examples:

– proximal radioulnar joint; the radius pivots during pronation and supination (as shown below)

– atlantoaxial joint (dens of axis to atlas)

45

Page 46: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(a)

Extension

Flexion

(b)

Extension

Flexion

Hyperextension

(c)

(d)

Flexion

Kneeflexion

Extension

Hipflexion

Hyperextension

46

Page 47: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(a) Abduction (b) Adduction

Identify the body movements below.

47Practice 15

Page 48: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(b) Lateral (external) rotation(a) Medial (internal) rotation

Identify the body movements below.

48Practice 16

Page 49: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Identify the body movements below.

Circumduction49Practice 17

Page 50: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

(a) Supination (b) Pronation

Identify the body movements below.

50Practice 18

Page 51: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Dorsiflexion

Zeroposition

(c) Eversion(b) Inversion

Plantar flexion

(a) Flexion of ankle

Identify the body movements below.

51Practice 19

Page 52: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Models with KEYS

52

Page 53: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

KEY CARD (Synovial joint of left knee)-- ALL are required terminologies. Educational + Scientific Products (ESP) in England (ZJY-940-J)

1. (in blue)– Articular cartilage; 2. (in white)-- Synovial membrane3. Femur; 4. Tibia5. Medial meniscus; 6. Lateral meniscus7. (in green)-- Fibrous capsule (outside synovial membrane; together synovial membrane and fibrous capsule are called joint capsule)8. (in red)-- Tibial collateral ligament9. Sponge (cancellous) bone showing patterning of the bony trabeculae10. Marrow cavity

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Page 54: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

1. Femur; 2a. Lateral condyle of femur; 2b. Medial condyle of femur; 3. Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament; 4a. Lateral meniscus; 4b. Medial meniscus; 5. Tibial (medial) collateral ligament; 6. Anterior cruciate ligament; 8. Patellar ligament; 9. Tibia; 10. Fibula; 11. Tendon of the quadriceps muscle; 12. location of patella (covered by tendon)

Knee (Anterior view)—All are required terminologies.

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Page 55: Ex. 9:  Appendicular skeleton

Knee (Posterior view)– All are required terminologies

1. Femur; 2a. Medial condyle of femur; 2b. Lateral condyle of femur; 3. Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament; 4a. Lateral meniscus; 4b. Medial meniscus; 5. Tibial (medial) collateral ligament; 9. Tibia; 10. Fibula; 13a. Medial articular cartilage of tibia; 13b. Lateral articular cartilage of tibia; 14. Posterior cruciate ligament

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