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    Introduction vii

    Introducing, defining and classifying 1

    1 Introducing your topic 1

    2 Giving brief definitions 6

    3 Classifying and describing characteristics 11

    Talking about aim and proposition 20

    4 Stating your aim, proposition and scope 20

    5 Talking about proposition, assumption, thesis and theory 28

    Structure, time, sequence and frequency 35

    6 Ordering and structuring your ideas and argument 35

    7 Time, sequence, duration and frequency 41

    Methodology and method, findings, size, amount, level and proportion 49

    8 Describing your methodology and method 49

    9 Presenting initial data and findings, and stating problems and anomalies 55

    10 Size, amount, level, capacity, proportion and ratio 60

    Movement and change, getting better or worse, allowing or preventing and eliminating 67

    11 Movement, change, trend and tendency 67

    12 Getting better or worse, bringing back or taking away, encouraging or deterring 75

    13 Allowing or preventing, avoiding, excluding, cancelling out and eliminating 80

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9780230289338

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9781137325037

  • vi

    Circumstance, advantage or disadvantage, presence or absence, and importance 84

    14 Circumstance, occurrence, normality, norm, deviance, risk and threat 84

    15 Advantage or disadvantage, plenty or too much, enough or not enough, presence or absence 90

    16 Importance, relevance, influence and impact 96

    Communication, expression, understanding, way of thinking and point of view 104

    17 Communication, expression, signification and portrayal 104

    18 Knowledge, understanding, perception, way of thinking and belief 111

    19 Position, point of view, support and opposition, impartiality and bias 116

    Cause and effect, dependency, similarity and difference 125

    20 Cause and effect, derivation, requirement, compatibility, reciprocity and dependency 125

    21 Equivalence, similarity, difference and diversity 134

    Analysing and evaluating ideas 144

    22 Analysing ideas and suggesting common themes 144

    23 Comparing the views of different authors and describing how they cite and evaluate each other 150

    24 Evaluating an authors ideas positively 157

    25 Evaluating an authors ideas negatively 164

    Drawing your own conclusions, stating your own position and summarising your ideas 173

    26 Suggesting counterarguments, conceding, disagreeing, drawing your own conclusions and generating your own ideas 173

    27 Being precise about your conclusions and expressing certainty, caution or doubt 182

    28 Summarising, restating your ideas, and suggesting ability, potential and future actions 188

    Appendix 196

    Latin abbreviations and phrases 196

    A brief explanation of word class 202

    Index: section headings and subheadings 205

    Index: words and phrases 209

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9780230289338

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9781137325037

  • vii


    To write successfully at university you need to communicate your ideas, arguments and research clearly and effectively; using words and phrases imprecisely or incorrectly will lessen both the clarity and the credibility of your work. Below is an

    extract from the first paragraph of a student essay entitled Do prisons work? Read the extract and ask yourself whether it communicates the students ideas clearly.


    Prisons are government institutions that keep those awaiting trial or convicted of offences outside society. This principal of removing people who harm society is a generally agreed function of prisons, as is the punishment such denial of freedom comprises. People would also agree that prisons should act as a deterrent for reoffending and that they should also aim to rehabilitate offenders.

    In fact this extract contains several mistakes, reducing the clarity and overall standard of

    writing and contributing to the low mark that was awarded for the assignment.

    Line Mistakes

    1 outside not quite the right word.

    2 principal wrong word; student has confused two similar sounding words.

    3 comprises wrong word; student has confused similar but not identical words. People too general (an overgeneralisation).

    4 for wrong word to use with deterrent.

    Below is the improved version of the essay extract, with the corrected or inserted words and phrases highlighted.

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9780230289338

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9781137325037

  • viii

    Prisons are government institutions that keep those awaiting trial or convicted of offences segregated from society. This principle of removing people who harm society is a generally agreed function of prisons, as is the punishment such denial of freedom constitutes. Many people would also agree that this punishment should act as a deterrent to reoffending and that prisons should also aim to rehabilitate offenders.

    Do you need The Student Phrase Book?

    If you didnt spot some of the mistakes in version A of the extract, or you did but werent sure how to correct them, then you will find The Student Phrase Book helpful. Below are three student sentences (taken from pages 172 and 180). If you find it difficult to find and/or correct the error in each sentence, then again you will find The Student Phrase Book of use.

    Smiths study is limiting because the sample size is extremely small.The data infers that lack of sunlight increases risk of depression.Tanen (2000) established that visual imprinting occurs in infancy, but later studies showed that this idea was incorrect.

    Using words in a nearly but not quite right way is common in student writing and is usually because of one or more of the following:

    not having a large enough vocabulary to write in a fairly formal style that is also clear and to the point;

    understanding a word when read, but not well enough for precise use in writing;

    getting the main word right but making a mistake with the words that come before or after it;

    not writing exactly what you mean (for example, writing people when you really mean some people);

    failing to spot mistakes when checking written work.

    The Student Phrase Book will help you in all of the above areas. It presents approximately 1,200 mid- to advanced-level words common to most academic disciplines, and gives you important information on about half of them, focusing on the most problematic. In each of the 28 sections you will find some words that you know, words that are new to you, and words that lie somewhere in between. Combined with the simpler words you already use (words such as next, finally, explain and suggest), this phrase book covers most of the general, non-technical vocabulary you will need to write successfully at university. The sentences in The Student Phrase Book have been collected over 24 years of teaching writing to university students, and the vocabulary has been well researched, and goes beyond other books and websites on academic vocabulary.

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9780230289338

    Copyrighted material - ISBN 9781137325037

  • ix

    How is The Student Phrase Book different from a dictionary or thesaurus?

    Unlike a dictionary or a thesaurus, The Student Phrase Book:

    presents the words in sentences so that you can immediately see how they are used;

    groups the words into ordered assignment functions so that you can find what you need quickly;

    gives key information for just over half of the words presented, concentrating on the words that most often cause problems;

    gives word definitions that include information on context and connotation (e.g. whether a word is positive or negative);

    explains the differences in meaning and use between commonly confused words;

    tells you which other words are usually or always used with the key words;

    contains brief introductions to some sections, highlighting points on analysing and evaluating evidence and on producing coherent and persuasive arguments;

    gives you real student sentences that contain common mistakes, so that you can practise your own error awareness and avoid making similar mistakes yourself;

    has an index that tells you where you can find a word in both the example sentences and the word information tables.

    How should you use The Student Phrase Book?

    You can use this phrase book in different ways:

    As a reference guide while you are preparing and writing your assignmentsUse the section headings to find words and phrases relevant for what you want to do at any point in your assignment. By looking through the sentences and word information, you will be able to use words that convey your meaning precisely (perhaps words such as cogent, corroborated, infer, rigorous or succinct). If you have time, you could also take a look at the sentences at the end of a section to practise spotting and correcting mistakes commonly made by students.

    To check a word you want to useIf you want to use a word you are not sure of,

    you can look it up in the index, see how it is used in a sentence, check its precise meaning, see other words with which it is commonly used, and find out about common errors to avoid.

    To check the meaning of a word or phrase you come across in your readingAgain, you can look the word up in the index, find it used in an example sentence and probably also find a definition and other useful information about it.

    For browsingBrowse through The Student Phrase Book at any time and in any order to help you improve your word knowledge and your familiarity with writing for university st