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    Moods in English

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    What are grammaticalmoods? Mood is the use of form to indicate

    semantic and grammatical differencesin the manner of the action of a verb.

    Three moods are used in English: Indicative

    Imperative

    Subjunctive

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    Indicative

    Indicative mood is used to state a factor ask a question:

    What is the moon made of?

    This is a small town. They go to school.

    I am going to visit you next week.

    She had forgotten to ask about it. Indicatives are real, they happened or

    will happen

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    Imperative

    Imperative mood is used to make acommand or request:

    Come here.

    Ask him about that. Sit down.

    When not intended strictly, we usually

    use please in imperatives: Pass me the salt, please.

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    Lets go imperative

    The imperative in the first and thirdperson both singular and plural areformed with let:

    Let me speak. Let him finish the sentence.

    Let us go.

    Negative imperatives: Dont let him stop here.

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    Other uses of the imperative

    Do tell me all you know.

    Do be quiet now.

    You sit here.

    You behave yourself.

    Up you come!

    Out you go!

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    Polite requests

    Will you, would you, can you couldyou

    Will you do it for me?

    Would you helf me? Can you call a taxi?

    Could you open the window?

    Would you mind

    Would you mind if I smoked?

    Would you mind my opening the window?

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    Subjunctive

    Subjunctive mood is used to expressdoubt, wishing, belief, or improbability: If the moon were made of blue cheese, it

    would smell.

    The subjunctive mood is indicatedthrough a shift in tense when thedependent clause follows a wishstatement, or is an improbable if clause

    Probable if clause: If I buy a watch I will knowthe time. Improbable: If I won the lottery, I would not

    care about the time.

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    Sentences that express urging,demand, or necessity also require thesubjunctive mood. Verbs other than

    the verb 'to be' in the dependentclause use the present tense form ofthe verb, without adding the 's' for the

    third person singular: I demand that she apologize to the

    student.

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    Such sentences that require the verb'to be' in the dependent clause use theform 'be' in all three persons:

    I insist that I be promoted. I had insisted that you be hired

    immediately.

    They insisted that she be nominated forPresident.

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    Contrasted

    Indicative Subjunctive

    I am I be

    you are you be

    he is he be

    she is she be

    it is it be

    we are we be

    they are they be

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    Exercises

    Fill in the blanks with the Simple PresentSubjunctive of the verbs shown inbrackets.

    1. He suggested that I _________ ready byeight o'clock. (to be)

    2. We request that she _________ thewindow. (to open)

    3. They demanded that he _________ theroom. (to leave)

    4. I will ask that she _____________ me. (toaccompany)

    5. They recommended that he _________ toBermuda. (to fly)

    be

    open

    leave

    accompany

    fly

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    Complete each of the following sentenceswith the Simple Past Subjunctive of the verbshown in brackets.

    1. I wish it _________ possible to finish the

    work tonight. (to be) 2. Will he wish he ______ ready? (to be)

    3. She wished she _________ how to sing.(to know)

    4. We wish they ____________ to come withus. (to want)

    5. You wished you ___________ better. (tofeel)

    were

    were

    knew

    wanted

    felt

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    I wish he ___________ here now. (to be)

    2. I wish that you _____________ hereyesterday. (to be)

    3. We wish you ________________tomorrow. (to come)

    4. They wished he _________________with them the next day. (to come)

    5. We wish you ________________

    yesterday. (to arrive) 6. I wish that he ______________ us

    next year. (to visit)

    were

    Had been

    Would come

    Would come

    Had arrived

    Would visit