nanotech in pharmacy

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    History of nanotechnology in pharmaceutics

    Nanotechnology in pharmaceutics

    Importance of nanotechnology in pharmaceutics

    Emerging digital health innovations

  • Introduction

    As biology and technology become ever more closely intertwined, new

    opportunities are emerging to improve healthcare through the use of

    innovative digital includes nanotechnology also

    Nanotechnology refers to microscopic technology that is of the scale

    of between 1 to 100 nanometers (a sheet of newspaper is about

    100,000 nanometers thick). Due to their microscopic size,

    nanoparticles can easily travel around the human body in the blood

    stream. Nanoparticles are usually composed of biological-based

    nanomachines or simple material nanostructures.

  • Classification


    1. Nanomaterial

    2. Nanodevice

  • Nanomaterial

    Nanomaterial are the material of which at least one dimension is sized

    Between 1-100nm.Nanomaterial are the bio-materials used ,their surface

    Modification or coatings might greatly enhance the biocompatibility by

    favouring the interaction of living cell with the biomaterial.

    Nanomaterial is divided into:-

    1. Nanocrystalline:-Drugs nanocrystal are the solid drug particle within

    diameter below 1000nm.Nanocrystal implies a crystalline state of

    discrete particle.This technology is explored to increase the

    bioavaibility of sparingly water soluble drugs. e.g. artificial limbs,

    facial prosthetics and neuroprosthetics etc.), and implants.

  • Nanostructure

    Nanostructured material are processed of raw nanomaterial that provide special shape or functionality .eg:- Metallic nanoparticles ,Quantum dots, Silicananoparticles etc

    Types of nanostructure:-

    1. Polymer

    2. Non-polymer

    Polymer:-These includes nano sized polymer of long chain pharmacyit includes:-

    1. Nanoparticles

    2. Denderimer

    3. Micelles

    4. Drug conjugates

  • Nanoparticles

    Polymeric nanoparticles provide an alternative to nanosystems due to some

    inherent properties like biocompatibility, nonimmunogenicity, nontoxicity and

    biodegradability. These are colloidal carrier, 10 nm -1m in size, consisting of

    synthetic or natural polymers. Polymeric nanoparticles are a broad class

    comprised of both vesicular systems (nanocapsules) and matrix systems

    (nanospheres). Nanocapsules are systems in which the drug is confined to a

    cavity surrounded by unique polymeric membrane whereas nanospheres are

    systems in which the drug is dispersed through out the polymer matrix. The

    various natural polymers like gelatin, albumin and alginate are used to

    prepare the nanoparticles.

  • Dendrimers

    They are hyperbranched, tree-like structures and have compartmentalized

    chemical polymer. Dendrimer contain three different regions: core,

    branches, and surface . The macromolecule constituents radiate in branching

    form from the central core, creating an internal cavity as well as a sphere of

    end groups that can be tailored according to requirements. They can be

    tailored or modified into biocompatible compounds with low cytotoxicity and

    high biopermeability. They bear promising properties for delivery of

    bioactives ranging from drugs, vaccines, metal, and genes to desired sites.

    Their hollow interior provides space to incorporate drugs and other bioactive

    physically or by various interactions to act as drug delivery vehicles

  • Polymeric micelle

    Polymeric micelles are usually of

  • Polymer drug conjugate

    The conjugation of low molecular weight drugs with polymer causes drastic

    change in pharmacokinetic disposition of drug in whole body and at cellular

    level. Polymer-drug conjugates are thus designed to increase the over all

    molecular weight, which facilitates their retention in cancer cells through

    enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect using passive delivery


  • Non-polymer

    Carbon nanotubes:- Carbon nanotubes are hexagonal networks of carbon

    atoms, and a layer of graphite rolled up into a cylinder 1 nm in diameter and

    1100 nm in length. There are two types of nanotubes: single-walled

    nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs) .

    These are small macromolecules that are unique for their size, shape, and

    have remarkable physical properties. Nanotubes offer some distinct

    advantages over other drug delivery and diagnostic systems due to very

    interesting physicochemical properties such as ordered structure with high

    aspect ratio, ultra-light weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical

    conductivity, high thermal conductivity, metallic or semi-metallic behavior

    and high surface area.Upto now it is highly used in cancer treatnment.

  • Metallic nanoparticles

    Metallic nanoparticles are emerging as good delivery carrier for drug and

    biosensor. Although nanoparticles of various metals have been made yet silver

    and gold nanoparticles are of prime importance for biomedical use . Their

    surface functionalization is very easy and various ligands have been decorated

    onto the surface. A large numbers of ligands have been linked to

    nanoparticles including sugars, peptide, protein and DNA. They have been

    used for active delivery of bioactive, drug discovery, bioassays, detection,

    imaging and many other applications due to surface functionalization ability,

    as an alternative to quantumdots.

  • Quantum dots

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconducting materials consisting of a

    semiconductor core (CdSe), coated by a shell (e.g., ZnS) to improve optical

    properties, and a cap enabling improved solubility in aqueous buffers. They

    are neither atomic nor bulk semiconductors. Their properties originate from

    their physical size, which ranges from 10100 in radius. Due to their bright

    fluorescence, narrow emission, broad UV excitation and high photostability

    QDs have been adopted for in vitro bioimaging for real time monitoring or

    tracking of intracellular process for longer time

  • Silica nanoparticles

    10 nm50 m

    Silanised and coated with oligonucleotide. Observable by fluorescence


    Efficient nuclic acid hybridization Detection of DNA Nanobiosensor for trace


  • Nanodevice

    Nanodevices are miniature devices in the nanoscale and some of which

    include nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/ MEMS),

    microfluidics(control and manipulation of micro or nanolitre of fluids), and

    microarrays(different kind of biological assay e.g. DNA, protein, cell, and

    antibody ). Examples include biosensors and detectors to detect trace

    quantities of bacteria, airborne pathogens, biological hazards, and disease

    signatures and some intelligent machines like respirocytes .


    1. NEMS

    2. Microarrays

    3. Respirocytes

  • Nano electro-mechanical device

    nano-technologies enable the fabrication of complex and miniaturized

    functional systems, called NEMS (i.e.nano electro-mechanical systems). NEMS

    provide interface functions (sensors and actuators) between micro- or

    nanoelectronics and the environment and human also helps to binds

    drugs to cabon is the typical device having low mass &

    mechanical frequencies .

  • Microarrays

    A microarray is a laboratory tool used to detect the expression of thousands of

    genes at the same time. DNA microarrays are microscope slides that are

    printed with thousands of tiny spots in defined positions, with each spot

    containing a known DNA sequence or gene

    These slides are referred to as gene chips or DNA chips. The DNA molecules

    attached to each slide act as probes to detect gene expression, which is also

    known as the transcriptome or the set of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts

    expressed by a group of genes.

    It helps in finding out the sequence of dna also which further help in many

    other works such as dna cloning

  • Respirocytes

    A respirocyte is a theoretical engineering design for an artificial red blood cell

    about a micron in diameter - a machine that cannot be constructed with

    current technology. Respirocytes are micron-scale spherical robotic red blood

    cells comprised of nanometer-scale components, containing an internal

    pressure of 1000 atmospheres of compressed oxygen and carbon dioxide. The

    intense pressure would be safely contained in two separate high pressure

    vessels likely made of pure diamond. At this intense pressure, a respirocyte

    could hold 236 times more oxygen and carbon dioxide than our natural red

    blood cells.

  • General application

    1. Intracellular targeting

    2. Treatnment of chemotherapy

    3. Avoidance of multidrug resistance

    4. Treatnment of leprosy

    5. Ocular drug delivary

  • Current application in pharmacy

    1. Nanomedicine

    2. Tissue engeneering

    3. Nano-robots

    4. Carrier of daigonostic

    5. Biosensor

    6. Biomaker

    7. Image enhancement