responding to crisis in 140 characters

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  1. 1. Responding to Crisis in 140 Characters
    Andi Narvaez
    University Of Maryland
  2. 2. Social Media and Crisis
    Use of Twitter is on the rise
  3. 3. Global Fortune 100 Social Media Stats
    • 84% of Fortune Global 100 companies use social media
    • 4. Twitter is the most popular channel, used by 77% of companies
    • 5. Use of Twitter has increased by 18% from 2009 to 2010
    • 6. Companies have an average of 5.8 Twitter accounts, up from 4.2 in 2010
    Burson-Marsteller 2011 Global Social Media Check-up
  4. 7. Increased possibility of making mistakes that can potentially spread quickly and be highly visible
  5. 8. Social Media Crises = One that originates and is responded to via social media channels
  6. 9. Research Purpose
    Apply Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) and Discourse Renewal in an analysis of organizations responses to social media crises.
    Recommend 140-character response strategies
    Suggest social media policies to prepare and respond to social media crises more effectively
  7. 10. Crisis Communication Theories
    SCCT
    Clusters: Victim, accidental, preventable
    Response Strategies:
    Denial(attaching the accuser, denial, scapegoating)
    Diminishment(excusing, justification)
    Rebuilding(compensation, apology)
    Bolstering(reminding, ingratiation, victimage)
    Most frequently used = Bolstering, denial
    Most effective: Full apology
    Least effective: Denial
  8. 11. Crisis Communication Theories
    Discourse Renewal
    Prospective focus
    Opportunities
    Provisional rather than strategic responses
    Ethical communication, leadership
  9. 12. Social Media and Crisis Management
    Dialogic nature of blogs and Twitter
    Influencers roles in covering crises
    Twitter leads to less negative reactions than blogs and newspapers
    Twitter users more likely to have secondary reactions (word-of-mouth)
    Twitter users less likely to boycott organization
  10. 13. Method
    In-depth interviews with 9 public relations, social media professionals
    Consulting, agency, nonprofit, and for-profit experience
    On Twitter since early 2008
  11. 14. Social Media Crises
    Four perpetrators
    Employee
    C-Level Executive
    Agency of Record
    Spokesperson
  12. 15. Employee
  13. 16. Ryan found two more 4 bottle packs of Dogfish Heads Midas Touch beer when we drink we do it right #gettngslizzerd
    @RedCross
    February 15, 2011
  14. 17. Ryan found two more 4 bottle packs of Dogfish Heads Midas Touch beer when we drink we do it right #gettngslizzerd
    @RedCross
    February 15, 2011
    Weve deleted the rogue tweet but rest assured the Red Cross is sober and weve confiscated the keys
    @RedCross
    February 16, 2011
  15. 18. C-Level Executive
  16. 19. Millions are in uproar in #Cairo. Rumor is they heard our new spring collection is now available online at http://bit.ly/KCairo - KC
    @KennethCole
    February 13, 2011
  17. 20. Millions are in uproar in #Cairo. Rumor is they heard our new spring collection is now available online at http://bit.ly/KCairo - KC
    @KennethCole
    February 13, 2011
    Re Egypt tweet: we werent intending to make light of a serious situation. We understand the sensitivity of this historic moment KC
    @KennethCole
    February 13, 2011
  18. 21. Agency of Record
  19. 22. I find it ironic that Detroit is known as the #motorcity and yet no one here knows how to fucking drive
    @ChryslerAutos
    March 9, 2011
  20. 23. I find it ironic that Detroit is known as the #motorcity and yet no one here knows how to fucking drive
    @ChryslerAutos
    March 9, 2011
    Our apologies our account was compromised earlier today. We are taking steps to resolve it.
    @ChryslerAutos
    March 9, 2011
  21. 24. Spokesperson
  22. 25. Japan called me. They said maybe those jokes are a hit in the US, but over here, theyre all sinking
    March 12, 2011
    Japan is really advanced. They dont go to the beach. The beach comes to them.
    @RealGilbert
    March 13, 2011
  23. 26. I meant no disrespect, and my thoughts are with the victims and their families.
    I sincerely apologize to anyone who was offended by my attempt at humor regarding the tragedy in Japan.
    @RealGilbert
    March 15, 2011
  24. 27. I meant no disrespect, and my thoughts are with the victims and their families.
    I sincerely apologize to anyone who was offended by my attempt at humor regarding the tragedy in Japan.
    @RealGilbert
    March 15, 2011
    Love that you want to be my new voice. But first Im using it to ask for donations to the Red Cross for Japan. www.redcross.org/donate
    @aflacduck
    March 15, 2011
  25. 28. Results
    RQ1: What type of crises did the organizations experience due their actions on Twitter?
    Accidental caused by improper use of technology and insufficient social media training
    New cluster: Inevitable
  26. 29. Results
    RQ2: What type of crisis response strategies do crisis communications professionals believe the organizations employed via Twitter?
    Apology used most often in combination with other approaches
    Full apology, discourse renewal
    Apology from spokesperson, bolstering (ingratiation) and discourse renewal
    Apology and denial (scapegoat)
    Apology and diminishment(excuse)
  27. 30. Results
    RQ3: Which organizations crisis response strategies are perceived to be most effective on Twitter by crisis communications professionals?
    Acknowledged, apologized, moved forward
    Characteristics of discourse renewal!
    Mislead, denied, contradicted, condescended, lost opportunity
    New response strategy: Humor
    LOL
  28. 31. Results
    RQ4: What situational factors influence professionals perceptions of which strategies are most effective?
    Perpetrator: Employees can
    make mistakes, CEOs cannot
    Context is King: Sensibility, tact
    Timing: 24 hour magic window
    Type of organization
    Nothing on use of hashtags,
    links or other Twitter features
  29. 32. Implications
    Best social media crises response strategies
    Role of discourse renewal
    Need for technical social media training
    Preparing for the inevitable
  30. 33. Limitations and Future Research
    Sample size
    Case study selection
    Responses on other social media channels
    Interviews Focus groups
    Experimental design
    Isolate situational mediators