SPWNED - iBeacon Technology

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This report lists the description, results and conclusion of the study to several indoor positioning technologies. This topic was initiated in the minor Mobile Application Development from the HAN University of Applied Sciences, Arnhem.The purpose of this study is to investigate different localization techniques and determine which technology produces the best results for indoor positioning.This report proposes the following hypothesis: "With beacons you can determine indoor location with deviations of less than ten percent of the actual distance, which makes an indoor navigation system with beacons a useful technology."@Copyright SPWNED 2014

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<ul><li><p>Research paper June 13, 2014 </p><p>2014 </p><p>PROJECT: INTERNET OF THINGS DENNIS ANDERSON, ERIC HORSTMANSHOF, NICK SCHELLEVIS, PETER XHOFLEER, SHIRLEY VERWEIJEN, WILLIAM RIJKSEN </p><p>HAN UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES | Ruitenberglaan 26, Arnhem </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>General information Project period February 4th 2014 June 27th 2014 Name student Dennis Anderson E-mail d.anderson@student.han.nl Student number 495200 </p><p>Name student Eric Horstmanshof E-mail er.horstmanshof@student.han.nl Student number 511497 </p><p>Name student William Rijksen E-mail hw.rijksen@student.han.nl Student number 482025 </p><p>Name student Nick Schellevis E-mail n.schellevis@student.han.nl Student number 462693 </p><p>Name student Shirley Verweijen E-mail sklverweij@student.han.nl Student number 454877 </p><p>Name student Peter Xhofleer E-mail pm.xhofleer@student.han.nl Student number 465180 </p><p>Client Theo Theunissen E-mail theo.theunissen@han.nl School HAN University of Applied Sciences Location Ruitenberglaan 26, 6826 CC Arnhem </p><p> Page 2 of 55 </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>Versioning Version Date Name Change(s) 0.1 17-02-2014 Nick, Dennis Initial release </p><p>0.2 21-02-2014 Process feedback Theo Theunissen </p><p>0.3 31-03-2014 Nick Updated with research plan </p><p>0.4 07-04-2014 Nick Added chapters and changed layout </p><p>0.5 09-04-2014 Shirley Added sub question 7. </p><p>0.6 14-04-2014 Nick Added sub question 6. </p><p>0.7 16-04-2014 Nick Alternative order in document. </p><p>0.8 23-04-2014 Nick &amp; Shirley Process feedback Theo Theunissen. Added terminology list. </p><p>0.9 07-05-2014 Nick Added sub question 10. Processed last of Theos feedback. </p><p>0.10 07-05-2014 Shirley Added sub question 9. </p><p>0.11 07-05-2014 Shirley Added introduction. </p><p>0.12 12-05-2014 Nick Chapter 5.6 added. </p><p>0.13 12-05-2014 Nick Chapter 5.3 updated to newest version. </p><p>0.14 12-05-2014 Nick Chapter 5.4 added. </p><p>0.15 14-05-2014 Shirley &amp; Nick Processing feedback Theo. Processing internal feedback. </p><p>0.16 19-05-2014 Shirley &amp; Nick Added chapter Requirements for indoor positioning. Changed chapter order. Added numbers to images and tables. </p><p>0.17 21-05-2014 Shirley Use of term beacon made consistent throughout document. </p><p>0.18 26-05-2014 Shirley Chapter Why iBeacon technology added. </p><p>0.19 02-06-2014 Nick Processing internal feedback. Added new version test results. </p><p>0.20 04-06-2014 Nick Processed feedback Theo. </p><p>0.21 10-06-2014 Nick Checked document again. Translated document to English. </p><p>1.0 11-06-2014 Nick Finalized document. </p><p>1.1 13-06-2014 Eric &amp; Nick Some translation errors fixed. </p><p> Page 3 of 55 </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>Table of contents General information ................................................................................................................ 2 </p><p>Versioning .................................................................................................................................. 3 </p><p>1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 6 </p><p>1.1 Over SPWNED (spawned) ........................................................................................ 6 </p><p>2 Problem .......................................................................................................................... 7 </p><p>3 Objective ....................................................................................................................... 7 </p><p>4 Hypothesis ...................................................................................................................... 7 </p><p>5 Questions ........................................................................................................................ 8 </p><p>5.1 What techniques are currently available for indoor positioning? ...................... 8 </p><p>5.1.1 Light Field Communication (LFC) .................................................................... 8 </p><p>5.1.2 Infrared (IR) ......................................................................................................... 9 </p><p>5.1.3 Radiofrequencies (RF) 865 MHz (UHF) 10.6 GHz (SHF) ................................ 9 </p><p>5.1.4 Dead-Reckoning .............................................................................................. 14 </p><p>5.2 What are the differences and similarities between the positioning techniques? ................................................................................................................................... 15 </p><p>5.2.1 Similarities .......................................................................................................... 15 </p><p>5.2.2 Differences ........................................................................................................ 15 </p><p>5.2.3 Summary ........................................................................................................... 16 </p><p>5.3 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the positioning techniques? ................................................................................................................................... 18 </p><p>5.3.1 Positive points ................................................................................................... 18 </p><p>5.3.2 Negative points ................................................................................................ 18 </p><p>5.4 Why iBeacon technology? .................................................................................... 21 </p><p>5.5 What is iBeacon technology? ............................................................................... 22 </p><p>5.6 How does iBeacon technology work? ................................................................. 23 </p><p>5.7 Test setup beacons ................................................................................................. 26 </p><p>5.7.1 Acceptance limit ............................................................................................. 26 </p><p>5.7.2 Delineation ........................................................................................................ 26 </p><p>5.7.3 Configurations .................................................................................................. 28 </p><p>5.7.4 Test environment .............................................................................................. 30 </p><p>5.8 Test results Beacons ................................................................................................. 33 </p><p>5.8.1 Operating system in combination with iBeacon technology ................... 33 </p><p>5.8.2 Effect of the interval on accuracy ................................................................ 35 </p><p>5.8.3 Effect of the power on accuracy .................................................................. 37 </p><p>5.8.4 Most accurate settings for Estimote Beacons .............................................. 40 </p><p> Page 4 of 55 </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>5.8.5 Overall conclusion test results ........................................................................ 44 </p><p>5.9 What are the requirements for indoor positioning with iBeacon technology? .. ................................................................................................................................... 45 </p><p>5.9.1 Surroundings ..................................................................................................... 45 </p><p>5.9.2 Placement ........................................................................................................ 45 </p><p>5.9.3 Obstacles .......................................................................................................... 45 </p><p>5.9.4 Electronic devices and signals ....................................................................... 45 </p><p>5.9.5 Electric and magnetic radiation shielding materials .................................. 45 </p><p>5.9.6 Hardware requirements .................................................................................. 46 </p><p>5.9.7 Software requirements .................................................................................... 46 </p><p>5.10 What are the advantages and disadvantages of iBeacon technology for indoor positioning? ............................................................................................................. 47 </p><p>5.10.1 Advantages ...................................................................................................... 47 </p><p>5.10.2 Disadvantages ................................................................................................. 47 </p><p>5.11 What possibilities does precise indoor positioning using iBeacon technology provide? .............................................................................................................................. 48 </p><p>5.11.1 Retail .................................................................................................................. 48 </p><p>5.11.2 Other examples ................................................................................................ 49 </p><p>6 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 50 </p><p>7 Recommendation ...................................................................................................... 50 </p><p>8 Definitions ..................................................................................................................... 51 </p><p>9 References ................................................................................................................... 52 </p><p>10 Attachments ................................................................................................................ 55 </p><p>10.1 Attachment 1.1 Test environment ...................................................................... 55 </p><p> Page 5 of 55 </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>1 Introduction This report lists the description, results and conclusion of the study to several indoor positioning technologies. This topic was initiated in the minor Mobile Application Development from the HAN University of Applied Sciences, Arnhem. </p><p>The purpose of this study is to investigate different localization techniques and determine which technology produces the best results for indoor positioning. </p><p>This report proposes the following hypothesis: "With beacons you can determine indoor location with deviations of less than ten percent of the actual distance, which makes an indoor navigation system with beacons a useful technology." </p><p>The above hypothesis is the theme of this report. This hypothesis is tested by answering the following questions: </p><p> What techniques are currently available for indoor positioning? What are the differences and similarities between the positioning techniques? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the positioning techniques? Why iBeacon technology? What is iBeacon technology? How does iBeacon technology work? What are the requirements for indoor positioning with iBeacon technology? What are the advantages and disadvantages of iBeacon technology for indoor </p><p>positioning? What possibilities does precise indoor positioning using iBeacon technology </p><p>provide? </p><p>By gathering information answers are obtained about indoor localization using beacons. Also, tests are setup and executed with the aid of Estimote beacons and the results are analyzed. </p><p>From all the information gathered in this report, a conclusion is made and the hypothesis is tested. </p><p>Finally, a recommendation is written on basis of the conclusion, if the iBeacon technology is a useful indoor navigation technology. </p><p>1.1 Over SPWNED (spawned) This group consists of Shirley, Peter, William, Nick, Eric and Dennis, which abbreviated spells SPWNED. This can be seen as the past tense of "to spawn", defined below. Our goal is to eventually spawn a mobile application and a research paper. </p><p>The section "NED" also indicates we are from Nederland, The Netherlands. to spawn [spn] (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000) 1. To produce or deposit (spawn). 2. To produce in large numbers. 3. To give rise to; engender: tyranny that spawned revolt. 4. To cause to spawn; bring forth; produce: a family that had spawned a monster. 5. To plant with mycelia grown in specially prepared organic matter. </p><p> Page 6 of 55 </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>2 Problem "The current technologies for positioning, such as (A-)GPS, are too inaccurate for precise indoor positioning." </p><p> In today's society, mobile devices are a part of life (Langeveld &amp; Savalle, 2010). Look around you on the street and you see several people staring at the device in their hands, looking for a particular street or bus stop. At a concert you will see a light show of mobile phones (see Figure 2.1) pointed towards the stage. In other words, mobile devices are taken everywhere and form a connection with more than just your immediate surroundings. </p><p>One wants to be connected, to find things quickly. But not only online, in the real world too. With indoor navigation one can spend their time more useful and efficient because less time is spent searching. </p><p>Moreover, companies (think of stores, retail) can point their customers to certain products. Also, they can display targeted commercials and special offers, based on a customers location, also to the benefit of the customer. </p><p>Obviously there are multiple applications for indoor navigation. These will be discussed later in this document. </p><p>The iBeacon technology seems to be a good option to make indoor navigation possible. But what are the conditions for reliable and accurate (indoor) positioning with iBeacon technology? </p><p>3 Objective The objective of this project is to investigate the different localization techniques and determine which technology produces the best results for indoor positioning. </p><p>If a suitable technology is found, it can be used by the client to let visitors, students and / or employees of the HAN navigate the school, for example at ICA Presents or an Open Day, and display useful information when they are at a stand or presentation. However, this is not within the scope of this project. </p><p>4 Hypothesis With beacons you can determine indoor location with deviations of less than ten percent of the actual distance, which makes an indoor navigation system with beacons a useful technology. </p><p>With some tests this assumption is tested. In this study it is tested with multiple locations and devices, and average, minimum and maximum deviation of the virtual to the real location are easily determined. Up to one meter deviation falls within the acceptance range. For an explanation of the acceptance range, see chapter 5.7.1. If the deviations exceed the acceptance range, this technology is not suitable for indoor location. </p><p>Figure 2.1 A common image at concerts </p><p> Page 7 of 55 </p></li><li><p>June 13, 2014 Informatics </p><p>5 Questions 5.1 What techniques are currently available for indoor positioning? There is not yet a standardized technique for an Indoor Positioning System (IPS), but there are several techniques that provide a good possibility. </p><p>5.1.1 Light Field Communication (LFC) Existing light sources can be used to make navigat...</p></li></ul>