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Tissues Hierarchy of organization Atoms molecules cells TISSUES organs Organ systems organisms populations communities ecosystems biosphere Study of tissues = Histology Slide 2 Tissue types * Epithelial tissueCover exposed surfaces (linings) both external and internal * Connective tissueFills internal spaces Connects, supports, transports * Muscle tissuemovement * Neural tissue Transmission of information Slide 3 Epithelial tissue Covering of all exposed surfaces Characteristics Polarity (apical and basal surfaces) Attachment (basement membrane) Tightly bound cells Avascular (nutrients via diffusion) Regeneration (actively in 24 cell cycle) Slide 4 Epithelial tissue Functions Physical protection Control permeability Sensation Secretion (glands) Exocrine = secretions onto epithelial surface Endocrine = secretions released to surrounding fluids Cilia and microvilli Slide 5 Epithelial connections Special proteins connect cells to each other at Tight junctionsDesmosomes Gap junctions Apical In-between epi cells Keeps fluids from leaking between cells Connect cell to cell Attach to cytoskeleton Interlock cells Provide channels Between cells Basement membraneHolds epithelium to rest of body Proteins and glycoproteins from basal lamina and reticular lamina Epithelium continuously replaced by stem cells near basement layer Slide 6 Epithelium classification Simple epithelial tissue = single layer of cells Stratified epithelial tissue = stacked cells Cell shapes Squamouscuboidalcolumnar Flat Irregular shape Lining ventral body cavity Mouth Kidney tubules Blood vessels Where thin/permeable required Box shaped Ducts glands Long and narrow (simple only) Secretion absorption Cilia and microvilli Small intestine Nasal cavity Slide 7 Epithelium and glands Endocrine glands = to follow Exocrine glands = secrete into ducts Merocrine = secretion via exocytosis mucous Apocrine = secretion with loss of cytoplasm milk Holocrine = secretion with loss of cell sebum Slide 8 Epithelial secretions Serous secretion = watery with enzymes parotid salivary glands Mucous secretions = watery with glycoproteins for lubrication sublingual salivary glands Mixed secretion = both submandibular salivary glands Slide 9 Connective tissue Connect, support, transport Bone, fat, blood Characteristics With specialized cells With extracellular proteins With ground substance Proteins + ground substance = extracellular matrix Slide 10 Connective tissue Functions Structural framework Transport (fluids) Protection (cushion) Support/connect tissues Store energy Defense Slide 11 Connective tissue classification Connective tissue proper Fluid connective tissue Supporting connective tissue Cellular and matrix content varied Adipose, tendons May be loose or dense Distinct cells in watery matrix Blood, lymph Cartilage, bone Slide 12 Connective tissue PROPER The CELLS Fibroblasts Macrophages Adipocytes Mesenchymal cells Melanocytes Mast cells Lymphocytes Microphages Always present, secrete hyaluronan to make ground substance, viscous WBCs that engulf pathogens Fat cells Stem cells that produce macrophages, fibroblasts and other connective tissue cells Synthesize/store pigment Release histamine and heparin in response to injury WBCs involved in immune response WBCs involved in protection from pathogens Slide 13 Connective tissue PROPER The FIBERS Collagen Reticular fibers Elastin fibers Long, straight, unbranched tendons, ligaments Like collagen but branched Stabilize position of cells Thin, branched Return to original shape The GROUND SUBSTANCE Clear, colorless, viscous Loose connective tissue Adipose, reticular Dense connective tissue Tendons, ligaments, surrounding organs Slide 14 FLUID connective tissue Blood Lymph Erythrocytes (RBCs) Leukocytes (WBCs) Platelets Plasma Hemoglobin ~45% blood volume Immune system Blood clotting Watery matrix Lymphocytes Interstitial fluid Immune system Watery matrix collected from surrounding cells Slide 15 SUPPORTING connective tissue Cartilage Chondrocytes produce matrix Avascular Perichondrium separates cartliage from other tissue Types of cartilage HyalineElasticFibrocartilage Common Tightly packed collagen Ribs, sternum Nasal, end bones Elastic fibers Epiglottis, Middle ear, Pinna, larynx Interwoven collagen Durable Spinal vertabrae Pelvic bones Slide 16 SUPPORTING connective tissue Bone Osseous tissue Osteocytes in matrix with calcium salts Covered by periosteum More to follow with skeletal system Slide 17 Connective tissue Membranes Mucous membranes Line cavities that communicate with exterior Respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive Serous membranes Line divisions in ventral body cavity Pleural = pleural cavity Peritoneum = peritoneal cavity Pericardium = pericardial cavity Transudate = fluid on surface of serous membranes Slide 18 Connective tissue Membranes Cutaneous membrane = skin = covers surface of body Synovial membranes Capsule at articulations (joints) Loose collagen, proteoglycans, glycoproteins Full of synovial fluid Slide 19 Connective tissue layers Superficial fascia Deep fascia Subserous fascia Subcutaneous/hypodermis Skin/underlying organs Deep connective tissue Organs/muscle Between serous membrane and deep fascia Slide 20 Muscle tissue For MOVEMENT via contraction 3 types of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Striated, multi nucleated voluntary movement Heart connected at intercalated discs Nonstriated Involuntary movement MORE TO FOLLOW Muscular system Slide 21 Neural tissue Conduct electrical impulses Neurons = conduct nerve impulses Glial cells = support neurons MORE TO FOLLOW Nervous system Slide 22 Embryology Zygote undergoes cleavage morula BLASTULA (blastocyst) = hollow ball Gastrulation forms 3 germ layers Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm Become different tissues organ systems (page 1088-1089)