treaty of versailles paris peace conference - 1919
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Treaty of Versailles
Paris Peace Conference - 1919
Britain - David Lloyd-George
France - Georges Clemenceau (the Tiger)
USA - Woodrow Wilson
Italy - Vittorio Orlando
Woodrow Wilsonwanted to prevent another world warFourteen Pointsself-determinationdid not want to leave Germany craving revenge
point 14 called for the creation of the League of Nations
new countries were to be created along ethnic lines
to maintain Britain’s naval supremacypublic pressure to punish Germany (effect of wartime propaganda) Many in Britain (having seen their husbands, sons and friends killed in the war) wanted revenge. A popular saying was "Squeeze them until the pips squeak".
“the Tiger”to guarantee France’s security with a buffer zone between Germany and Francelandreparations ($)
land from Austria-Hungaryreparations ($)
Germany lost...1/8 of her land6,000,000 peopleall her coloniesAlsace-LorraineSaar BasinRhinelandPolish Corridor
Germany also lost...
65% iron ore45% coal72% zinc57% lead ore15% agriculture10% manufacturing plants25% rubber supply
Germany also lost...airforce
navy (scuttled)army (except 100,000 troops)
Germany also lost...
government -- the Weimar Republic replaced the previous government
Germany also lost…$$$
reparation payments were set at $33,000,000,000
War Guilt Clause
Article 231 of the Treaty of VersaillesGermany took responsibility for starting WWI and had to pay for all damagereparation payments were set at 33 billion dollars
The United States
did not ratify the Treaty of Versaillesthey did not want to be the world’s policeman
Why were Germans unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles?
German reaction to Treaty of VersaillesUnrepresented
Not allowed to join League of NationsForced to accept terms - diktatAngry with armed forces reductionsInjustice - War guilt, loss of land etcReparations - set too high
Clemenceau, the VampireClemenceau, the Vampire
Interpreting a cartoon
How do I interpret this cartoon?How do I interpret this cartoon?
1. Context – what was
happening at the time?
2. Content – what is
happening in the
3. Comment – what is the
meaning of the
Context – what was happening at the time?• Germany had just been defeated
• The Treaty of Versailles was signed in1919.
• It had been written by the ‘Big Three’ and imposed on Germany.
• Clemenceau wanted to ruin Germany
• The Treaty blamed Germany for the war
• The Treaty made her pay ‘reparations’ for ALL the damage.
• Germany lost lots of land.
• Germany lost her armed forces.
• The Germans hated the Treaty.
Content – what is happening in the picture?
A young girl, beautiful but weak
An evil-looking vampire...
… which is sucking the girl’s blood
Weapons laid aside.
Two bats outside the window – more vampires.
The window is open – the curtains are blowing.
Comment – what is the meaning of the picture?
• Germany is helpless to defend herself.
Two more bats
• Taking reparations
• Germany’s army had been disbanded by the Treaty of Versailles.
• Britain and America
1. How old would a child born in 1919 be by 1940?
2. What is this cartoonist suggesting about the Treaty of Versailles?
This cartoon was made in 1920
•1. List the New nations of Europe post WW I
•2. Who were the Big Four? What were the aims of each one?
•3. List seven territories that changed hands after WW I
•4. How did the aims of Wilson conflict with the aims of the other victorious European leaders?
•5. What does self-determination mean? Give an example of how it was applied both positively and negatively.
•6. How did Wilson hope to guarantee world peace?
•7. Note how the treaty affected:
• German military
• German territory
• German economy
• German colonial possessions
•8. Define Article 231, Reparations, War Guilt
•9. Why did the USA fail to ratify the Treaty of Versailles?