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Causes of WWI

Causes of WWI

Causes of World War I

-National identities became important, people were educated in nationalism at school

-National pride was based upon industrial power and colonies.

-1871: Germany and Italy became countries -wanted to be like Britain /France

-New nationalisms were breaking out through all Europe, like the serbians

1- Nationalism

2- Industrialization

-From 1870 on, industrialization spreads to continental Europe-Economic competition between nations began-Germany quickly gaining on Britain-Transport networks, communication, and military advances continued spreading-Need for markets and raw materials

3- Imperialism

-Nationalism and industrialization tied to colonial power-Competition for colonies increases tensions-European nations rule Africa and part of Asia to build empires

4- Militarism

-Between 1870 and 1914, European nations increased their military budget by 400%-Many believed war was coming, but didnt know when it would start.-Arms Race developed fast: new weapons appeared (machine guns, poisonous gases, war airplanes, submarines, new warships)

Road to war: the pre-war crisis

1905 Morocco- Germany wanted to end French supremacy over Morocco

- 1906 Algeciras Conference: France & Great Britain stuck together against German claims

1908: 1st Balkan Crisis- Austria-Hungary takes control over Bosnia-Herzegovina

- Russia & Serbia protest but they are not ready for a war

- Germany backs up Austria-Hungary against Russia and Serbia

Pre-War Crisis

1911: MoroccoCrisis of Agadir: Germany claims Morocco ( under French control)

France keeps control over Morocco and in exchange Germany receives french territories in Central Africa

Secret agreement: France would patrol the Mediterranean Sea while Great Britain would patrol the French coasts in the Atlantic and the North Sea

1912-13: 2nd Balkan CrisisAfter several local wars, Serbia enlarges its territories with Russias support

Austria-Hungary is losing supremacy over the Balkan area.

GermanyIndustrialized

Wanted an overseas empire (Navy)

Encircled by Russia and France

Austria-HungaryDifferent ethnic groups that wanted their independence (serbs, slavs, czechs, germans)

Scared by Russia

ItalyNew country

Wanted an overseas empire

Not as powerful or industrialized as the rest

The Triple Alliance

Great BritainIndustrialized

Overseas Empire

The splendid isolation ends as Germany claims for colonies

FranceWanted revenge after the Franco-Prussian War

Claims the Alsacia-Lorena region

Industrialized

RussiaOld Regime: most backward country

Not very industrialized

Supports Slavs and Serbs living in Austria-Hungary

The Triple Entente

Domino Effect: the war starts

-1) June 28, 1914 Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia -A young member of a serbian nationalist group, Gavrilo Princip, is the killer-Austria-Hungary blames Serbia for supporting Bosnian Nationalist for the assassination

Domino Effect

-(2) Austria Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia to allow Austrian forces to investigate and stop anti-Austrian activities in Serbia. (Austria knows Serbia will not accept)

Domino Effect

(3) Serbia refuses ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declares war(4) Russia mobilizes army to defend Serbia(5) Germany declares war on Russia

h

Domino Effect

(6) France declares war on Germany

(7) Germany invades Belgium to attack France(8) Britain declares war on Germany

h

The Domino Effect (overview)

Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia (its forces will enter the country to investigate the murder)

Serbia refuses the ultimatum

Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.28 July 1914

Russia mobilizes its troops to defend Serbia

Germany (Austria-Hungary s allie) declares war on Russia

France (Russias allie) declares war on Germany

Germany invades Belgium to attack FranceGreat Britain (Frances allie) declares war on Germany

Countries Mobilize for war:
Nationalism and Patriotism

But Dont we forget a country?

-Yes!: Italy decided that its chances to gain land were better with France, Britain, and Russia than with the Germans, so they changed their side.

-And how about Spain? Well, Spain remained neutral, and did a good business selling bullets, coal and other items to countries in war. Anyway, it did not make the country prosper

Domino Effect

-Most of the fighting took place in Western Europe, even though the conflict started in the Balkans in Eastern Europe

Results-OVERVIEW

-Stalemate-Trench Warfare-No real movement

for 4 years!

Results- OVERVIEW
1914-1918

10,000,00045,000,0001,350,000,000

27,900,000

11,250,000414,000,00022,500,000

DeadWounded Pounds of bone and flesh

Pounds of brain matterGallons of bloodYears of life not livedChildren not born

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