cells. learning objectives that cells form tissues, and tissues form organs to name some important...
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Learning Objectivesthat cells form tissues, and tissues form organsto name some important tissues in humansto explain the organisation of tissues using a modelthat there are different types of cell, adapted for different functionsto use secondary sources of information
What are living organisms made from?Basically, all living things are made up of cellsA group of CELLS makes up a TISSUEA group of TISSUES makes up an ORGANA group of ORGANS makes up a SYSTEMA group of SYSTEMS make up an ORGANISM
What are living organisms made from?
Human Body TissuesEpithelial tissuesserve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs separate, in place and protectedConnective tissuesadds support and structure to the bodyMuscle tissuesspecialised tissue that can contractNerve tissuesgenerate and conduct electrical signals in the body
Circulatory systemOxygen is carried by blood, blood is pumped by the heart.
Nervous SystemThe nervous system is responsible for sending, receiving, and processing nerve impulses throughout the body. Ex. brain, spinal cord
Respiratory SystemIn the respiratory system, the lungs are the organs that take in the oxygen muscles need.
Digestive SystemIn the digestive system, the stomach and the intestines are the organs that get sugars from the food you eat. Blood carries these sugars to the muscles.
Reproductive systemMajor Organs: Female: ovaries, oviducts, uterus, vagina and mammary glands. Male: testes, seminal vesicles and penis. http://www.brainpop.com/science/diversityoflife/humanbody/
Singular cell organisms
functions like respiration, feeding, moving, expelling wastes, reproduction, etc. are carried out by the single cellEx. Amoeba, parameciumhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6rnhiMxtKUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9ymaSzcsdY&feature=fvw pppp
Some cells have very specialised functionsThese cells have special features, or adaptations, in order to carry out their special function
Root Hair Cell
These cells are found near to the tip of the roots of plantsMost water and nutrients enter plants through them
It has a large surface area to speed up the absorption of water and mineral salts from the soil.http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgenetics/cellspecialization/
Research PosterYou are going to be making a A3 poster with information about a specialised cellYou need to use google to find images and websites to find out information on these cells.If you use a website, you must make a note of the address. Copy it and put it in a reference section in the corner of your poster!
Poster criteriaHave a clear title and subtitlesExplain specialised cell functionIdentify where the cell is foundIdentify special features that help the cell perform its specialised functionHave clear picturesnot have lots of text copied from a websiteHave a reference section where you can put your used websites in
Specialised cellsChoose one or more from:Sperm cell Egg cellPalisade cellCiliated cellNerve cellRed blood cellWhite blood cell
Sperm cell Designed to carry genetic information to an egg They have a tail which they use for swimmingThey have a pointed head to penetrate the eggThe head of the sperm contains special chemicals that help it penetrate the eggThey have little cytoplasm so they can swim faster
Egg cellDesigned to be fertilisedAn ovum is large and bulky because no active movement is needed - it just sits and waits for the sperm to find itIt contains yolk (in the cytoplasm) which provides a large food store needed for the developing young organism once it's fertilisedOnce the sperm fertilizes the egg, the egg swells pushing away other sperm, so it can only be fertilized once
Palisade cellDesigned for photosynthesisThey are tall and narrow so that lots of cells can fit close togetherThey are found on the top side of a leaf - ideal for good absorption of carbon dioxide and light - both are needed for photosynthesisThey're packed with chloroplasts, which contain the green pigment chlorophyll, which is needed for photosynthesis
Ciliated cellTo remove mucus, to remove bacteria, move liquid over the cell's surface.In humans, ciliated cells are found, for example, in the lining of the windpipe, where they sweep mucus and dirt out of the lungs, and in the oviducts, where they move the ovum from the ovary to the uterusThey have tiny hairs that beat to move things over the cell surface
Nerve cellTo carry messages throughout the body They are very long so they can carry messages to different parts of the bodyThey have many branches at the end so they can connect with many other nerve cells
Red blood cellsTo carry oxygen from the lungs to the parts of the body where it is neededThey are shaped to give them a large surface area so they can absorb oxygen more easilyThe cytoplasm contains a chemical called haemoglobin which carries oxygenHave no nucleus so there is more room for oxygen to be carried in the cell and hence around the bodyTheir shape makes them flexible which means cells can squeeze through the thinnest of capillaries
White blood cellTo help the immune systemSome are flexible, so they can engulf foreign objects, viruses, bacteria and fungal infectionsSome can remember dangerous infections, and therefore protect against them better next time