body cells form tissues tissues form organs organs form systems (e.g., digestive) turnover require...

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  • Slide 1
  • Body Cells Form tissues Tissues form Organs Organs form Systems (e.g., digestive) Turnover Require energy, adenosine triphosphate Require nutrients
  • Slide 2
  • Cell Membrane Double layers of lipid, CHO, and protein Controls passage of substances Distinct identification structures
  • Slide 3
  • Organelles Cytoplasm MitochondriaPower plant Major site for energy production Nucleus DNA Endoplasmic reticulum - communication network Rough endoplasmic reticulum - protein synthesis Smooth endoplasmic reticulum -fat synthesis
  • Slide 4
  • Organelles Golgi Complex Packaging site for protein Lysosomes Cells digestive system Peroxisomes Detoxify harmful chemicals
  • Slide 5
  • Four Types of Tissues Epithelial Lines the outside surfaces and external passages Connective Holds structures together Muscle Able to contract Nervous Transport nerve impulses
  • Slide 6
  • Circulatory System Heart and blood vessels Systemic circuit Pulmonary circulation Lymphatic system Blood
  • Slide 7
  • Blood Circulation
  • Slide 8
  • Cardiovascular System Heart to the lungs Arteries Capillaries Veins
  • Slide 9
  • Portal Circulation Transports nutrients From the small intestine Delivers to the liver Allow liver to process nutrients before returning it to the bloodstream
  • Slide 10
  • Exchange of Nutrients Insert Fig. 3-4
  • Slide 11
  • Exchange of Nutrients Insert Fig. 3-4
  • Slide 12
  • The Digestive System
  • Slide 13
  • Digestive System Mouth to anus Epithelium lines the lumen Barrier to invaders Submucosal layer Muscularis Taste and smell
  • Slide 14
  • The Mouth Mastication Saliva Enzymes to help breakdown simple sugars Mucus to lubricate the food for easier swallowing Lysozyme to kill bacteria Tongue Taste receptors Enzymes to help breakdown fatty acids
  • Slide 15
  • The Esophagus Long tube Connects pharynx to the stomach Epiglottis prevents choking Peristalsis, muscle contraction Lower esophageal sphincter Heartburn
  • Slide 16
  • The Stomach Lower esophageal sphincter and pyloric sphincter Capacity of ~4 cups Secretion of acid, enzymes, and intrinsic factor Holds food for 2-4 hours Formation of chyme Mucus layer prevents autodigestion
  • Slide 17
  • Physiology of the Stomach
  • Slide 18
  • Stomach Acid Destroys activity of protein Activates digestive enzymes Partially digests dietary protein Assists in calcium absorption Makes dietary minerals soluble for absorption
  • Slide 19
  • The Small Intestine The walls are folded Villi projections are located on the folds Absorptive cells are located on the villi Increases intestinal surface area by 600x Rapid cell turnover
  • Slide 20
  • The Small Intestine
  • Slide 21
  • Nutrient Absorption Passive diffusion Active absorption Phagocytosis and pinocytosis
  • Slide 22
  • Nutrient Absorption
  • Slide 23
  • The Large Intestine ~3 1/2 feet in length No villi or enzymes present Little digestion occurs Indigestible food stuff Absorption of water, some minerals, vitamins Contains bacteria Formation of feces for elimination
  • Slide 24
  • Rectum Stool remains Stimulates elimination Muscle contraction Anal sphincters
  • Slide 25
  • Movement Along the Intestine Peristalsis A ring of contraction propelling material along the GI tract Mass movement Peristaltic wave that contracts over a large area of the large intestine to help eliminate waste
  • Slide 26
  • Movement
  • Slide 27
  • Site of Absorption
  • Slide 28
  • Accessory Organs Pancreas Gallbladder Liver
  • Slide 29
  • The Liver Produces bile Enterohepatic circulation
  • Slide 30
  • The Pancreas Manufactures digestive enzymes Produces glucagon and insulin Secretes pancreatic juices Bicarbonate needed to neutralize chyme
  • Slide 31
  • Storage Capabilities System of maintaining reserves Adipose tissue Glucose Amino acids in the blood Vitamins and minerals in the liver Calcium in bones