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Creating Nano-scale materials by physically or chemically breaking down larger materialsNANOTECHNOLOGY1 nm .STUDY OF MANIPULATING MATTER ON AN ATOMIC SCALE- KARTHIKEYAN
Richard Feynman invented as an idea in 1954. Norio Taniguchi coined the name nanotechnology in 1974. The word nano comes from the Greek for dwarf.
Richard Feynman Assembling Nano materials atom-by-atom or molecule-by molecule (self assembling)Top-down ApproachBottom-up ApproachNanotechnology deals with anything measuring between 1 and 100 nm.
Nanotechnology applications in Food:Food processing.Food packaging. All foods contain nanoparticles.
Titanium dioxide - particle size of less than 100 nm - used as food additive and antimicrobial agent for food packaging and storage Containers.Silver nanoparticles - used as antimicrobial agents in food packaging, storage containers, chopping boards and refrigerators and also as health Supplement.Zinc and zinc oxide - used as nutritional additives and also as antimicrobial agents in food packaging.Silicon dioxide and carbon - particles of a few hundred nm in size and are used as food additives and for food packaging.Platinum and gold nano-wires are used as biosensors to improve the food analysis.Aluminosillcate materials are commonly used as anticaking agents in granular or powdered processed foods
Production of functional foods such as soft drinks, ice cream, chocolate and chips are marketed as healthy foods by reducing fat, carbohydrate or calorie content or by increasing protein, fibre or vitamin contents.Development of foods capable of modifying their colour, flavour or nutritional properties according to a persons dietary needs, allergies, or taste preferences, production of stronger flavourings, colourings and nutritional additives and lowering costs of ingredients.Nano encapsulation Nanocarrier systems for delivery of nutrients and supplements.
Fortified - vitamins, minerals, probiotics, bioactive peptides, antioxidants and plant sterols.
5 The tiny pathogens (germs) get confused and bind to the particles instead of real cells, then flush - out they go through the digestive systemkeeping chickens safer and healthier for human consumption.
Researchers are experimenting with new pathogen-disabling nanoparticles to keep chickens healthy. Nano particles are added to feed and mimic cell surfaces inside the chicken.
Nano-encapsulated active ingredients including vitamins and fatty acids are now soldcommercially for use in processing and preservations of beverages, meat, cheese andother foods
Aquanova, a German Company, has developed a nanotechnology based on carrier system using 30 nm micelles to encapsulate active ingredients such as vitamins C &E and fatty acids, which can be used as preservatives. Aquanova marketsthese micelles as "NovaSol".
NovaSol offers considerable advantages of faster meat processing,cheaper ingredients, higher colour stability(See Fig. 1) and ready to use liquid form. These nanoadditives have been available to German manufacturers since 2006.
Nestle and Unilever are reported to be developing nano size emulsion-based ice cream with a lower fat content but that retains a fatty texture and flavor.
George Weston Foods of Australia sells a version of its popular Tip Top bread, known as Tip Topup, which contains microcapsules of tuna fish oil high in omega-3 fatty acids. Because the tuna oil is contained in a microcapsule, the consumer does nottaste the fish oil, which is released during digestion once it has reached the stomach.The same technology is also employed in yoghurt and baby foods
Nutralease Ltd Company has developed novel carriers - lycopene, beta-carotenes and phytosterols. These products are used in healthy foods, especially to prevent the accumulation of cholesterol
Industrial nanotech (OTC: INTK), s8217, sNansulate protective coating to provide thermal insulation and corrosion protection of dairy processing equipment.The Nansulate PT was used to coat dairy processing tanks and pipes in order to protect them against corrosion and insulate against heat loss, increasing efficiency of the manufacturing process by reducing both energy and corrosion-related expenses.
Food packagingCustomers today demand a lot more from packaging in terms of protecting the quality, freshness and safety of foods.Nano-packaging - designed to release antimicrobials, antioxidants, enzymes, flavours and nutraceuticals to extend shelf life. In food packaging sector, nanomaterials - enhance mechanical and thermal properties - ensure better protection of foods from external mechanical, thermal, chemical or microbiological effects.Nano sensors for food labelling.nano-titanium dioxide plastic additive namely "DuPont light stabilizer210", which could reduce UV damage of foods in transparent packaging.
Basically montmorillonites (MMT) has been used.
Polylactic acid + MMT = increased thermal resistance
Polyvinylchloride + MMT = improved optical resistance
Polyethylene + MMT/SiO2 = improved durability
Polyamide + multi wall carbon nanotubes = significant flame resistance.
Monitors the condition of packaged food or the environment surrounding the food
11 Intelligent/smart packaging
I m original I do harmIts meI do not harmI m fresh
The U.S. Company Sono-Tec Corporation announced in early 2007 that it hasdeveloped an edible antibacterial nano-coating, which can be applied directly tobakery goods. It is currently testing the process with its clients
Another trend in this respect is the chemical release nano-packaging. This technique enables food packaging to interact with the food. The exchange can be processed in both directions. Packaging can release nanoscale antimicrobials, antioxidants, flavours, fragrances or nutraceuticals into the food or beverages to extend its shelf life or to improve its taste or smell .
These products commonly use nanoparticles of silver, although some usenanosize zinc oxide or chlorine dioxide and other materials
Nanotechnology is also enabling sensor packaging to incorporate cheap Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. The nano-enabled RFID tags are much smaller, flexible and can be printed on thin labels.
An ingestible nano-based track and trace technology is promised by pSiNutria, a spin out of nanotechnology company pSivida.
Potential pSiNutria products include products to detect pathogens in food, for food tracing, and preservation and temperature measurements in food storage.Nano sensor
Georgia Tech in the United State used modified carbon nanotube as biosensor to detect microorganisms, toxic substances and spoilage of foods or beverages.Opel, which makes Opalfilm incorporating 50nm carbon black nanoparticles was used as biosensor that can change colour in response to food spoilage.Titanium dioxide nanoparticles based, oxygen-sensing inks were used as Tamper proofing.The incorporated carbon black (CB) NPs and MWNT in polymer packaging can absorb the smell emitted from the packaging or food
Another trend in the application of nano-packaging is the nano-biodegradable packaging. The use of nanomaterials to strengthen bioplastics (plant-based plastics) may enable bioplastics to be used instead of fossil-fuel based plastics for food packaging and carry bags.
Several German research institutes, industry partners and the Munich University of Technology have joined forces to develop non-stick nano food packaging for mayonnaise and tomato sauce bottles. The researchers have applied thin films, which measure less than 20 nm to the inside surface of food packaging.
17Nanotechnology in India
Potential role of nanoparticles in plant Pathogen detection at early Stage and waste management (University of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh)
Nano ZnO for smart packaging 1. Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (Bhubaneshwar) 2. Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, (Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh)
Department of Science and Technology (DST), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR), a network of 38 laboratoriesScience and Engineering Research Council(SERC) too has aided projects on nanotechnology
The migration of NPs from packaging to packed food raised public concern and could be realized by generating the active oxygen species (ROS) within the cells. Another is that the toxicity has a strong relationship with the chemical component of NPs.
For example, the crystallization and recrystallization of some metal or metal oxide NPs will modify the secondary or tertiary conformation of the proteins. While other types of NPs, such as the metal alloy, or single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) or MWNT can result in direct or indirect gene toxicity.Toxicity