powerlecture: chapter 4 tissues, organs, and organ systems

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  • Slide 1
  • PowerLecture: Chapter 4 Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems
  • Slide 2
  • Learning Objectives Understand the various levels of animal organization (cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems). Know the characteristics of the various types of tissues. Know the types of cells that compose each tissue type and cite some examples of organs that contain significant amounts of each tissue type. Describe how the four principal tissue types are organized into an organ such as the skin.
  • Slide 3
  • Learning Objectives (contd) Explain how the human body maintains a rather constant internal environment despite changing external conditions.
  • Slide 4
  • Impacts/Issues Stem Cells
  • Slide 5
  • Stem cells are the first to form when a fertilized egg starts dividing. Adults have stem cells in some tissues such as bone marrow and fat; these cells have shown some promise as therapy. Adults have stem cells in some tissues such as bone marrow and fat; these cells have shown some promise as therapy. Embryonic stem cells can be coaxed Embryonic stem cells can be coaxed to differentiate into many different types of cells, which can replace damaged or worn out body cells perhaps to an extent greater than adult stem cells.
  • Slide 6
  • Stem Cells The human body is an orderly assembly of parts (anatomy). A tissue is an aggregation of cells and intracellular substances functioning for a specialized activity. A tissue is an aggregation of cells and intracellular substances functioning for a specialized activity. Various types of tissues can combine to form organs, such as the heart. Various types of tissues can combine to form organs, such as the heart. Organs may interact to form organ systems such as the digestive system. Organs may interact to form organ systems such as the digestive system. Homeostasis allows for the stable functioning (physiology) of all our combined parts. Homeostasis allows for the stable functioning (physiology) of all our combined parts.
  • Slide 7
  • Video: New Nerves From ABC News, Biology in the Headlines, 2005 DVD. CLICK TO PLAY
  • Slide 8
  • How Would You Vote? To conduct an instant in-class survey using a classroom response system, access JoinIn Clicker Content from the PowerLecture main menu. Should researchers be allowed to start embryonic stem cell lines from human embryos that are not used for in vitro fertilization? a. Yes, most unimplanted embryos are destroyed anyway; the potential of stem cells is too great to ignore. a. Yes, most unimplanted embryos are destroyed anyway; the potential of stem cells is too great to ignore. b. No, any human embryo has the potential to become a human and so deserves protection from destruction. b. No, any human embryo has the potential to become a human and so deserves protection from destruction.
  • Slide 9
  • Section 1 Epithelium: The Bodys Covering and Linings
  • Slide 10
  • Epithelium Epithelial tissue covers the surface of the body and lines its cavities and tubes. One surface is free and faces either the environment or a body fluid; the other adheres to a basement membrane, a densely packed layer of proteins and polysaccharides. One surface is free and faces either the environment or a body fluid; the other adheres to a basement membrane, a densely packed layer of proteins and polysaccharides. Cells are linked tightly together; there may be one or more layers. Cells are linked tightly together; there may be one or more layers.
  • Slide 11
  • Fig. 4.1a, p. 69 free surface of epithelium connective tissue simple squamous epithelium basement membrane
  • Slide 12
  • Animation: Structure of Epithelium CLICK TO PLAY
  • Slide 13
  • Epithelium There are two basic types of epithelia. Simple epithelium is a single layer of cells functioning as a lining for body cavities, ducts, and tubes. Simple epithelium is a single layer of cells functioning as a lining for body cavities, ducts, and tubes. Simple epithelium functions in diffusion, secretion, absorption, or filtering of substances across the cell layer.Simple epithelium functions in diffusion, secretion, absorption, or filtering of substances across the cell layer. Pseudostratified epithelium is a single layer of cells that looks like a double layer; most of the cells are ciliated; examples are found in the respiratory passages and reproductive tracts.Pseudostratified epithelium is a single layer of cells that looks like a double layer; most of the cells are ciliated; examples are found in the respiratory passages and reproductive tracts. Stratified epithelium has many layersas in human skin. Stratified epithelium has many layersas in human skin.
  • Slide 14
  • Animation: Types of Simple Epithelium CLICK TO PLAY
  • Slide 15
  • Table 4.1, p. 68
  • Slide 16
  • Epithelium Both simple and stratified epithelium can be subdivided into groups based on shape at the tissue surface: Both simple and stratified epithelium can be subdivided into groups based on shape at the tissue surface: Squamous epithelium consists of flattened cells; examples are found in the lining of the blood vessels.Squamous epithelium consists of flattened cells; examples are found in the lining of the blood vessels. Cuboidal epithelium has cube-shaped cells; examples are found in glands.Cuboidal epithelium has cube-shaped cells; examples are found in glands. Columnar epithelium has elongated cells; examples are found in the intestine.Columnar epithelium has elongated cells; examples are found in the intestine.
  • Slide 17
  • Fig. 4.2b-d, p. 70 basement membrane cilia columnar cells TYPE: Simple squamous DESCRIPTION: Friction- reducing slick, single layer of flattened cells COMMON LOCATIONS: Lining of blood and lymph vessels, heart; air sacs of lungs; peritoneum FUNCTION: Diffusion; filtration; secretion of lubricants TYPE: Simple cuboidal DESCRIPTION: Single layer of squarish cells COMMON LOCATIONS: Ducts, secretory part of small glands; retina; kidney tubules; ovaries, testes; bronchioles FUNCTION: Secretion; absorption TYPE: Simple columnar DESCRIPTION: Single layer of tall cells; free surface may have cilia, mucus-secreting glandular cells, microvilli COMMON LOCATIONS: Glands, ducts; gut; parts of uterus; small bronchi FUNCTION: Secretion; absorption; ciliated types move substances
  • Slide 18
  • Epithelium Glands develop from epithelium. Glands are secretory structures derived from epithelium that make and release specific substances, such as mucus. Glands are secretory structures derived from epithelium that make and release specific substances, such as mucus. Glands are classified according to how their products reach the site where they are used. Glands are classified according to how their products reach the site where they are used. Exocrine glands often secrete through ducts to free surfaces; they secrete mucus, saliva, earwax, milk, oil, and digestive enzymes for example.Exocrine glands often secrete through ducts to free surfaces; they secrete mucus, saliva, earwax, milk, oil, and digestive enzymes for example. Endocrine glands have no ducts but distribute their hormones via the blood.Endocrine glands have no ducts but distribute their hormones via the blood.
  • Slide 19
  • Section 2 Connective Tissue: Binding, Support, and Other Roles
  • Slide 20
  • Connective Tissue Connective tissue binds together, supports, and anchors body parts; it is the most abundant tissue in the body. Fibrous connective tissues and specialized connective tissues are both found in the body. Fibrous connective tissues and specialized connective tissues are both found in the body. Fiber-like structural proteins and polysaccharides secreted by the cells make up a matrix (ground substance) around the cells that can range from hard to liquid. Fiber-like structural proteins and polysaccharides secreted by the cells make up a matrix (ground substance) around the cells that can range from hard to liquid.
  • Slide 21
  • Connective Tissue Fibrous connective tissues are strong and stretchy. Fibrous connective tissue takes different forms depending on cell type and the fibers/matrix produced. Fibrous connective tissue takes different forms depending on cell type and the fibers/matrix produced.
  • Slide 22
  • collagenous fiber fibroblast elastic fiber Loose connective tissue cartilage cell (chondrocyte) Cartilage collagenous fibers collagenous fibers fibroblast ground substance with collagen fibers Dense, regular connective tissue Fig. 4.2a-d, p. 70 Dense, irregular connective tissue
  • Slide 23
  • Connective Tissue Types and examples of fibrous connective tissue: Types and examples of fibrous connective tissue: Loose connective tissue supports epithelia and organs, and surrounds blood vessels and nerves; it contains few cells and loosely arrayed thin fibers.Loose connective tissue supports epithelia and organs, and surrounds blood vessels and nerves; it contains few cells and loosely arrayed thin fibers. Dense, irregular connective tissue has fewer cells and more fibers, which are thick; it forms protective capsules around organs.Dense, irregular connective tissue has fewer cells and more fibers, which are thick; it forms protective capsules around organs. Dense, regular connective tissue has bundled collagen fibers lying in parallel; such arrangements are found in ligaments (binding bone to bone) an