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Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa i
Old Goa - 403 402, Goa (India).
ICAR RESEARCH COMPLEX FOR GOAICAR RESEARCH COMPLEX FOR GOA (INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH)
S. Priya Devi
M. S. Ladaniya
N. P. Singh
PINEAPPLEPINEAPPLE Goaa profitablefruit crop fora profitablefruit crop for
Technical Bulletin No.: 35
ii Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa
S. Priya Devi M. Thangam
M. S. Ladaniya N. P. Singh
ICAR ReseARCh Complex foR GoA (INDIaN CouNCIL of agrICuLTuraL reSearCh)
old goa - 403 402, goa (India).
Technical Bulletin No.: 35
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa iii
Published by Dr. N.P. Singh Director ICAR Research Complex for Goa Ela, Old Goa- 403 402, Goa, India
Phone : +91 832 2284678/679 Fax : +91 832 2285649 E-mail : email@example.com Website : www.icargoa.res.in
Authors Dr. S. Priya Devi, Dr. M. Thangam, Dr. M.S. Ladaniya and Dr. N.P. Singh.
S. Priya Devi, M.Thangam, M.S.Ladaniya, N.P.Singh (2013): Pineapple-a profitable fruit for Goa. Technical Bulletin No. 35, ICAR (RC), Goa.
Printed at: M/s. Impressons, Belgaum
iv Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa
Goa is a small but important coastal state in India. In the state, mining and tourism are attractive enterprises, followed by agriculture. The state’s income from horticulture is mainly due to plantation crops like cashew, coconut etc. Even potential fruit crops like banana and pineapple take back bench as enterprises. Pineapple is a fruit of ever-growing demand from domestic as well as tourism point of view. Presently, indescript ‘Local’ cultivar is grown disregarding quality of planting material and nutritional requirement. Plantation is also being continued for more than 5 to 6 ratoon crops or even more and fresh planting is not done for many years resulting in poor yields i.e. 8-10 tonnes per ha.
Although coconut is one of the important plantation crops cultivated in Goa in an area of 25, 160 ha, the inter-space is fallow in 90% of the fields. Availing this land for inter-cultivation of shade tolerant fruit crop like pineapple will not only serve as an additional income to farmers but also solve the problem of area expansion under horticulture in a small state like Goa. The current scenario of productivity of pineapple in Goa is well below the national average. This condition is due to ignorance and non-adoption of proven/ improved technologies of cultivation. Unsystematic orcharding and lack of scientific approach in farming are the current lacuna in Goan agricultural scenario. This technical bulletin throws light upon the prospects of scientific cultivation of pineapple as intercrop in coconut farms.
(Narendra Pratap Singh) Director
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa iv
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa v
vi Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of the most popular tropical fruits. The origin of the pineapple is the American continent, probably Brazil and Paraguay. It has spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions as a commercial fruit crop. The important pineapple going countries of the world are the Hawaiian Islands, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Brazil, Ghana, Kenya, Mexico, Taiwan, South Africa, Australia, Puerto Rico and India.
The juice has worldwide market. The fruit and juice have good industrial demand also. The fruit is a good source of vitamin A and B and rich in vitamin C and calcium. It also contains phosphorus and iron. India produces more than 8% of total world production of pineapple.The major pineapple producing states in India are Assam, West Bengal, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Bihar.
Currently, India produces 1.53 million tonnes of pineapple with productivity of 15.3 t/ha. Although Goa is a potential state for cultivating pineapple, it has not been done commercially but for few farms. Utilisation of available inter space in coconut which is otherwise fallow by cultivating improved varieties of pineapples will fetch good profit to the farmers of Goa.
In this context a systematic evaluation study was undertaken in ICAR RC for Goa with three varieties of pineapple under the shade of adult coconut palms. The results were encouraging and the same has been published in this bulletin for the benefit of farmers. Besides, the package of cultural practices for commercial cultivation of pineapple has also been furnished in this bulletin. The authors are thankful to the organisation for all the support rendered.
We express our deep and sincere sense of gratitude to former Director V.S.Korikanthimath for his motivation and support since the initiation of this study. We also duly acknowledge the technical assistance rendered by Late. Mr. Ashok Dessai, Mr. Rahul M. Kulkarni and Mr M.M. Zalmi throughout the study period.
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa vii
viii Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa
foreworD ................................................................................... iii
PrefaCe ..................................................................................... v
1. Pineapple - A Profitable Fruit for Goa .................................... 1 Introduction
2. Classification of Pineapple: ................................................... 2 Varieties of Cayenne Group Varieties of Queen Group Varieties of Spanish Group
3. Pineapple Cultivation in Goa ................................................. 6
4. Evaluation of Pineapple Cultivars .......................................... 8 4.1 Varieties Evaluated 4.2 Span of Flowering and Fruiting 4.3 Main Crop 4.4 First Ratoon Crop 4.5 Second Ratoon Crop 4.6 Estimated Income From Pineapple Intercrop
5. Package Of Practices For Pineapple..................................... 20 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Land Preparation 5.3 Planting Method 5.4 Manures And Fertilizers 5.5 Inter Cultivation 5.6 Flower Regulation Using Growth Regulators
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa ix
Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa 1
1. Pineapple - A profitable fruit crop for Goa
1. INTRODUCTION The pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] is one of the leading commercial fruit crops of the tropics. Pineapple is also a commercially important fruit crop of India with around 90,000 ha area under this crop, 15.27 lakh tonnes annual production and 15.3 tonnes /ha productivity (Anonymous, 2013). It is one of the choicest fruit all over the world because of its pleasant taste and flavour. Pineapple is a good source of vitamin A and B and fairly rich in vitamin C and minerals like calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron (Table 1). It is also a source of bromelin, a digestive enzyme. In addition to being eaten fresh, the fruit can also be canned and processed in to different forms.
Table 1: Nutritional value of Pine apple (per 100 g) Energy 48 kcal Carbohydrates 12.63 g Sugars 9.26 g Dietary fiber 1.40 g Fat 0.12 g Protein 0.54 g Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.079 mg Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.031 mg Niacin (vit. B3) 0.489 mg Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.205 mg Vitamin B6 0.110 mg Folate (vit. B9) 15.00 μg Vitamin C 36.20 mg Calcium 13.00 mg Iron 0.28 mg Magnesium 12.00 mg Manganese 0.90 mg Phosphorus 8.00 mg Potassium 115.00 mg Zinc 0.10 mg
Source: USDA Nutrient database
2 Pineapple-a profitable fruit crop for Goa
The horticultural classification of pineapple varieties of Hume and Miller (1904) is currently followed. They divided cultivated varieties of pineapple into 3 main groups viz.,
i) Cayenne, ii) Queen and iii) Spanish.
Cayenne group is by far the most important group. Most of the varieties in India may be accommodated into anyone of the 3 groups. For example, Kew or Giant Kew, synonymous with Smooth Cayenne, grown most extensively in India, represents Cayenne group, and Queen another popular variety belongs to Queen group. Recently, Py et.al. (1987) classified cultivars grown throughout the world into 5 distinct groups, the additional two being ‘Pernambkuco’ and ‘Mordilonus-Perolera- Maipure’.
The varieties of Cayenne and Spanish group are dual-purpose ones whereas varieties of Queen group are grown exclusively for fresh-fruit markets, as they are not suitable for canning; owing to deep eyes.
VARIETIES OF CAYENNE GROUP Smooth Cayenne or Cayenne Smooth Cayenne is extensively cultivated in Hawaii, Philippines, Australia, South Africa, Puerto Rico, Kenya, Mexico, Cuba and Formosa. It is the most popular canning variety.
The plant is stocky and robust; with tapering fleshy leaves up to 90 cm in length and about 6 cm in width. The upper surface of the leaves is dark green with brownish-red irregular mottling above (due to anthocyanin pigment in the epidermis) and silvery- grey mottling beneath with smooth straight margins, excepting near the tip and the base, where there are a few small spines. The flowers are light- purple with bright-red bracts and their number on a single spike ranges from 130 to 170. The fruit is cylindrical in shape and weighs between 2 and 3 kg; the