the napoleonic era - ms. burke's history site 2018-09-01آ  the napoleonic era 1799-1815. 1796-1799...

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  • The Napoleonic Era

    1799-1815

  • 1796-1799

    Gained popularity during the French Revolution as a military hero

  • November 1799 Napoleon overthrows Directory in 1799 which is called the Brumaire Coup

    Directory unpopular, Napoleon and 3 Directors scheme to overthrow it by dissolving legislature

    Napoleon named 1st Consul then in November 1799 establishes military dictatorship

  • 1800 - Bank of France ● Established for security of wealth and private property ● Bank privately owned and served the state and financial

    oligarchy

  • 1801

  • 1801 Concordat of 1801

    ● Freedom for French Catholics

    ● Deal with pope in which Napoleon’s government nominated bishops, paid the clergy, and exerted great influence over the church

    Remember

    Concordat of Bologna (1516) New Monarch Francis I made deal with pope that France recognize supremacy of papacy and in return French crown get to appoint bishops and abbots

    Motivation? $

  • 1802 Treaty of Amiens

    ● Between France and Britain ● France agree to leave Britain’s

    colonies in Malta, Egypt, and Cape Colony alone as well as the rest of Europe ○ Napoleon did not listen

    ● Peace did not last and resulted in Napoleonic Wars in 1803

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5d7Toc2wuSQ&t=304s

  • March 1804 Napoleonic Code

    1. Simplifies laws for France 2. Eliminates the Estate System 3. Allows freedom of religion

    Napoleon undertook a number of domestic reforms while often curtailing some rights and manipulating popular impulses behind a facade of representative institutions

    Examples

    ● Careers open to all ● Educational system ● Centralized bureaucracy ● Civil Code ● Concordat of 1801

    But all of these undermined by:

    ● Secret police, censorship, limitation of women’s rights

  • December 1804 Napoleon crowns himself emperor for life, which lasted 1804 to 1814

  • 1805 - War of of the Third Coalition October:

    Britain defeats the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar

    Spain was ally of France

    December:

    Napoleon defeats Austria and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz

    France victorious because:

    ● Grande armee - over 500,000 soldiers conscripted and volunteered

    ● Military strategy of using artillery units as themselves with infantry and cavalry

    ● Armies not reliant on supply lines so more mobile

    ● Rewards = high moral ● Industrial Revolution - mass

    amount of weapons produced

  • Napoleon’s empire built to spread ideals of French Revolution

    Undermined because empire building led to nationalism across Europe

  • 1807 Holy Roman Empire dissolved (officially) and German Confederation of the Rhine established

  • 1808 Napoleon’s expanding empire created nationalist responses throughout Europe

    Example: Spanish revolt against French occupation

    ● Guerilla tactics against France ● Britain help the Spanish ● France finally pushed out of

    Spain in 1813 (War of Sixth Coalition)

    Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814

  • 1810

  • 1812 - Napoleon Invades Russia Scorched Earth - Russians burn everything as retreat to cut off Napoleon’s supply lines

    Retreat from Russia

    War of 1812 - America vs. Britain, America wins

  • 1814 April

    France’s enemies capture Paris

  • 1815

    Louis XVIII

  • Summary of Napoleon Napoleon ruled France as dictator and emperor for 15 years (1799-1814)

    Claiming to defend the ideals of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte imposed French control over much of the European continent

    How? Napoleon’s new military tactics allowed him to exert direct or indirect control over much of continent spreading the ideals of the French Revolution

    Result? Continental System: blockade imposed to stop trade between continental Europe and Britain with goal of weakening British economy and military

    Effects of Napoleon:

    ● Nationalistic reaction (ex: Britain, Germany, Spain, Italy) ● Metric system

  • 1. Robespierre’s Speech Denouncing the New Conditions of Eligibility Excerpt:

    “All citizens, whoever they are, have the right to aspire to all levels of office-holding. Nothing is more in line with your declaration of rights, according to which all privileges, all distinctions, all exceptions must disappear. The Constitution establishes that sovereignty resides in the people, in all the individuals of the people. Each individual therefore has the right to participate in making the law which governs him and in the administration of the public good which is his own. If not, it is not true that all men are equal in rights, that every man is a citizen. If he who only pays a tax equivalent to a day of work has fewer rights than he who pays the equivalent to three days of work, and he who pays at the level of ten days has more rights than he whose tax only equals the value of three; then he who enjoys 100,000 livres of revenue has 100 times as many rights as he who only has 1,000 livres of revenue. It follows from all your decrees that every citizen has the right to participate in making the law and consequently that of being an elector or eligible for office without distinction of wealth.”

    Explanation: Why this source demonstrates Robespierre was a facilitator of equality: 3 sentences

    Citation: Robespierre, Maximilien. “Speech Denouncing the New Conditions of Eligibility." 22 October 1789. Liberty, Equality and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. George Mason University, 2012. Web. 26 November 2013.

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