trachea + lungs

of 46 /46

Author: msu

Post on 02-Nov-2014




13 download

Embed Size (px)




    Dr Mohammed Faez

2. Trachea
The trachea is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the cricoid cartilageof the larynx, on a level with C6 vertebra, to the level of the angle of Louis (T4/5) vertebra, where it divides into the two bronchi, one for each lung.
3. Trachea
The trachea is a rigid fibroelastic structure. Incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage continuously maintain the patency of the lumen.
The trachea is lined internally with ciliated columnar epithelium.
4. Trachea
5. Trachea
It measures about 11 cm. In length.
Its diameter, from side to side, is from 2 to 2.5 cm.
It has 18-22 cartilaginous rings
It is greater in the male than in the female.
6. Trachea
The isthmus of the thyroid gland (2nd, 3rd and 4th tracheal rings )
The inferior thyroid veins
The sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles
The cervical fascia
The manubriumsterni
The remains of the thymus
The left innominate vein
The aortic arch
Left common carotid arteries
The deep cardiac plexus.
7. Trachea
Posteriorly : the esophagus
Common carotid arteries
Right and left lobes of the thyroid gland
Inferior thyroid arteries
The recurrent nerves
8. Trachea
Thorax: it lies in the superior mediastinum.
The pleura
Right vagus,
The innominate artery
Left recurrent nerve
The aortic arch
The left common carotid
Subclavian arteries
9. Inferior thyroid a.
Vagus n.
Recurrent laryngeal n.
Thoracic duct
Sympathetic trunk
10. Trachea
The trachea divides into two main bronchi : the left and the right bronchi, at the level of the sternal angle at the anatomical point known as the carina.
11. Bronchi
The right bronchus:
Wider, shorter, and more vertical in direction than the left.
It is about 2.5 cm. Long,
It enters the right lung nearly opposite the T5 vertebra.
12. Bronchi
The Left Bronchus
It is smaller in caliber but longer than the right
It is about 5 cm. long.
It enters the root of the left lung opposite the T6 vertebra.
13. 14. Wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left
Right Primary Bronchus
Left primary bronchus
15. Bronchi
The primary bronchi divide to form Secondary Bronchi (lobar bronchi).
There is one secondary bronchus for each lobe of the lungs.
There are 2 lobes on the left lung.
There are 3 lobes on the right lung.
16. Bronchi
The left main bronchus enters the hilum and divides into a superior and inferior lobar bronchus.
The right main bronchus gives off the bronchus to the upper lobe prior to entering the hilum(superior lobar bronchus)and once into the hilumdivides into middle and inferiorlobar bronchi.
17. Bronchi
Each lobar bronchus divides within the lobe into(Tertiary Bronchi) segmental bronchi.
Each segmental bronchus enters a bronchopulmonary segment.
Each bronchopulmonary segment is pyramidal in shape with its apex directed towards the hilum.
18. Bronchi
Each bronchopulmonarysegment has its own segmental bronchus, artery and lymphatics.
The veins draining each segment are intersegmental.
19. Bronchi
20. Trachea blood supply
the trachea receives its blood supply from branches of the inferior thyroid and bronchial arteries.
21. Lungs
The two lungs are organs of respiration and lie on either side of the mediastinum surrounded by the right and left pleural cavities.
Right and left lungs.
22. Lungs
The right lung is normally a little larger than the left lung because the middle mediastinum, containing the heart, bulges more to the left than to the right.
23. Lungs
Each lung has a half-cone shape, with a base, apex, two surfaces and three borders:
The base sits on the diaphragm.
The apex projects above 1st rib and into the root of the neck.
24. Lungs
The two surfaces-the costal surface lies immediately adjacent to the ribs and intercostal spaces of the thoracic wall.
The mediastinal surface lies against the mediastinumanteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly and contains the comma-shaped hilum of the lung through which structures enter and leave.
25. Lungs
The three borders-the inferior border of the lung is sharp and separates the base from the costal surface. The anterior and posterior borders separate the costal surface from the medial surface.
Unlike the anterior and inferior borders, which are sharp, the posterior border is smooth and rounded.
26. Lungs
Root and hilum of lung:
The root of each lung is a short tubular collection of structures that together attach the lung to structures in the mediastinum .
The hilum, where structures enter and leave.
27. Lungs
Structures within each root and located in the hilum:
A pulmonary artery
Two pulmonary veins
A main bronchus
Bronchial vessel
28. Lungs
the right lung:
It is divided into upper, middle and lower lobes by oblique and horizontal fissures.
The left lung:
It has two lobes, upper and lower lobes.They are separated by the oblique fissure.
29. Lungs
Read about right and left lungs relations andlungs impressions.
30. 31. 32. Bronchial Tree
The trachea is divided into 2 bronchi
The main bronchus divides within the lung into lobar bronchi.
The lobar bronchi divide into segmental bronchi which supply bronchopulmonary segments.
Each bronchopulmonary segment, the segmental bronchi divide into bronchioles, which further subdivide and supply the respiratory surfaces.
33. Bronchopulmonary Segment
There are ten bronchopulmonary segments in each lung
Each bronchopulmonary segment is shaped like an irregular cone with the apex at the origin of the segmental bronchus and the base projected peripherally onto the surface of the lung.
34. Bronchopulmonary Segment
A bronchopulmonary segment is the smallest, functionally independent region of a lung and the smallest area of lung that can be isolated and removed without affecting adjacent regions.
35. 36. 37. 38. Blood supply of the lung
The bronchi and parenchymal tissue of the lungs are supplied by bronchial arteries a branches of the descending thoracic aorta.
Bronchial veins, which also communicate with pulmonary veins, drain into the azygos and hemiazygos.
39. Lymphatic drainage of the lungs
lymph returns from the periphery towards the hilartracheobronchial groups of nodes and from here to mediastinallymph trunks.
40. 41. Nerve supply of the lungs
A pulmonary plexus is located at the root of each lung.
The plexus is composed of sympathetic fibres (from the sympathetic trunk) and parasympathetic fibres (from the vagus).