treaty of versailles “a peace built upon quicksand”

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Treaty of Versailles “A Peace Built Upon Quicksand”

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  • Slide 1
  • Treaty of Versailles A Peace Built Upon Quicksand
  • Slide 2
  • Treaty of Versailles Conference January -June 1919 Settlement drafted by delegates of victorious nations in WWI: Britain, United States, France, and Italy We were preparing not Peace only, but Eternal Peace. There was about us the halo of some divine mission.For we were bent on doing great, permanent and noble things. Participant of conference at Versailles, World History: Continuity & Change, p. 612
  • Slide 3
  • A representative of the new German government met with Marshal Foch. In a railway car in a forest near Paris, the two signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting). On November 11, 1918, World War I came to an end. Leaders of the victorious nations gathered outside Paris to work out the terms of peace, but the peace settlement left many feeling bitter & betrayed.
  • Slide 4
  • GERMAN EAGLE (to German Dove): "Here, carry on for a bit, will you I'm feeling rather run down."
  • Slide 5
  • At 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918, Germany agreed to the armistice, ending World War I. Peace at Last
  • Slide 6
  • The armistice was signed in a railway carriage in the forest of Compiegne. How and why are these two images of the same event so different?
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • News of the Armistice brought great relief. On both sides of no-mans land, trenches erupted, they threw their helmets in the air, discarded their guns, waved their hands, then the two groups of men all up and down the fronts began edging toward each other, hesitantly at first, but when they met up, they began hugging each other, dancing, jumping, passing out cigarettes and chocolate. The French & the Germans were not only hugging each other but kissing each other on both cheeks as well. The final toll of the war was staggering. It lasted 4 years, involved more than 30 nations & was the bloodiest war in history to that time. Deaths numbered over 30 million, half of them civilians who died as a result of disease, starvation or exposure. In addition, 20 million more people were wounded & an additional 10 million became refugees. Historians estimate the direct economic cost of the war to have been about $350 billion. Total casualties: Russia = 9,300,000 Germany = 7,209,413 France = 6,220,800 Austria-Hungary = 4,650,200 Britain = 3,428,535 U.S. = 325,236
  • Slide 9
  • Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Social : almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million are wounded millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine, and disease the world was left with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism.
  • Slide 10
  • Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Economic : the total cost of the war: over $350 billion. How was this paid for??? heavy taxes: causes lower standard of living for the European people. international trade suffers: nations raise the tariffs on imports and exports. Russia: communist seize power and introduce a new economic system. economic collapses bring on the Great Depression of the late 1920s and 1930s.
  • Slide 11
  • Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Political : U. S. emerges as a world power because of the assumption of international responsibilities. 3 major European dynasties are taken out of power: Romanovs--Russia, Hohenzollerns--Germany, Hapsburgs-- Austria-Hungary. New states are created in central Europe, some containing several different nationalities, especially in Poland and Czechoslovakia. The League of Nations is created to solve international problems and maintain world peace. Will be a failure. Many nations turn to military dictatorshipsprimarily Russia, Italy, and Germany, to control their political problems.
  • Slide 12
  • Does this information help you to understand why so many people wanted revenge after the war? Why or why not? Respond on Left Side. Around 8 million people had been killed The cost of the war was roughly nine thousand million pounds The destruction of land, homes, farms and factories was huge Millions more people died after the war due to famine and disease In France and Belgium, where most of the war was fought, 300,000 houses, 6,000 factories, 1,000 miles of railway, 2,000 breweries and 112 coal mines were destroyedIn some ways, mankind has never recovered from the horrors of the First World War. John D. Clare, First World War (1994)
  • Slide 13
  • Impact in Europe The effects of World War I in Europe were devastating. European nations lost almost an entire generation of young men. France, where most of the fighting took place, was in ruins. Great Britain was deeply in debt to the U.S. and lost its place as the worlds financial center. The reparations forced on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were crippling to its economy. World War I would not be the war to end all wars, as some called it. Too many issues were left unresolved. Too much anger and hostility remained among nations. Within a generation, conflict would again break out in Europe, bringing the United States and the world back into war.
  • Slide 14
  • The Mood in 1919 Most countries felt Germany should pay for the damage and destruction caused by the War. The countries of Europe were exhausted. Their economies and industries were in a poor state. Millions had died. Almost every family had lost a member in the fighting. Ordinary citizens faced shortages of food and medicine.
  • Slide 15
  • The Paris Peace Conference President Wilson led American negotiators attending the peace conference in Paris in January 1919. His attendance of the Paris Peace Conference made him the first U.S. President to visit Europe while in office. Republicans criticized Wilson for leaving the country when it was trying to restore its economy. Wilsons dream of international peace, though, required him to attend the conference as a fair and unbiased leader to prevent squabbling among European nations. The Paris Peace Conference began on January 12, 1919, with leaders representing 32 nations, or about three-quarters of the worlds population. The leaders of the victorious AlliesPresident Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlandobecame known as the Big Four. Germany and the Central Powers were not invited to attend.
  • Slide 16
  • General Purpose To maintain a balance of power in Europe like the Congress of Vienna To prevent another war Unfortunately, nations had differing aims
  • Slide 17
  • David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Orlando [Italy] Georges Clemenceau [France] Woodrow Wilson [USA]
  • Slide 18
  • The Four Major Leaders
  • Slide 19
  • End of the War Continued Eventually five treaties emerged from the Conference that dealt with the defeated powers. The five treaties were named after the Paris suburbs: o Versailles (Germany), Versailles o St Germain (Austria), St Germain o Trianon (Hungary), Trianon o Neuilly (Bulgaria) Neuilly o and Serves (Turkey).Serves These treaties imposed territorial losses, financial liabilities and military restrictions on all members of the Central Powers.Central Powers
  • Slide 20
  • Woodrow Wilson President of the USA. Wilson was an idealist and reformer, who wanted to build a better and more peaceful world. He didnt want the Treaty to be too harsh as he believed this would lead to revenge. He wanted to set up a peace keeping body The League of Nations Wilson did not understand the deep feelings of hatred in Europe.
  • Slide 21
  • America (Wilson) Fourteen Points including self-determination, reduction in militaries, and the League of Nations American public preferred not to entangle itself with Europe (ex. Henry Cabot Lodge)
  • Slide 22
  • Americas View: A Peace of Justice Woodrow Wilson of America had been genuinely stunned by the savagery of the Great War.Woodrow WilsonAmerica He could not understand how an advanced civilization could have reduced itself so that it had created so much devastation. In America, there was a growing desire for the government to adopt a policy of isolation and leave Europe to its own devices.America In failing health, Wilson wanted America to concentrate on itself and, despite developing the idea of a League of Nations, he wanted an American input into Europe to be kept to a minimum. He believed that Germany should be punished but in a way that would lead to European reconciliation as opposed to revenge.
  • Slide 23
  • Americas View Continued He had already written about what he believed the world should be like in his "Fourteen Points" The main points in this document were:FourteenPoints 1)no more secret treaties 2) countries must seek to reduce their weapons and their armed forces 3) national self-determination should allow people of the same nationality to govern themselves and one nationality should not have the power to govern another 4)all countries should belong to the League of Nations.
  • Slide 24
  • The Fourteen Points In a speech to Congress before the war ended, President Wilson outlined a vision of a just and lasting peace. His plan was called the Fourteen Points, and among its ideas were Open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, the removal of trade barriers, and the reduction of military arms A fair system to resolve disputes over colonies Self-determination, or the right of people to decide their own political status and form their own nations Establishing a League of Nations, or an organization of countries working together to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future wars The Fourteen Points expressed a new philosophy that applied progressivism to U.S. foreign policy. The Fourteen Points declared that foreign policy should be based on morality, not just on whats best for the nation.
  • Slide 25
  • What does this source tell you about the British publics feelings towards Germany in 1918?. The Germans, if this government is elected, are going to pay every penny; they are going to be squeezed, as a lemon is squeezed, until the pips squeak. (Sir Eric Geddes, December 1918) Sir Eric Geddes was Minister of Munitions in Britain, Controller of the Navy and First Lord of the Admiralty at different points during The First World War.
  • Slide 26
  • Discuss how difficult must it have been for the Allies to get the right balance between punishment and creating a lasting peace? Do with your partner and write on Left Side. The British General Election in December 1918 was punctuated by bellowings that the Kaiser should be hanged, that Germany should pay up.Few realised the harmful effects of uniformed and aggressive public opinion which had been aroused by years of war propaganda, and whipped up by the popular press Martin Kitchen, Europe Between The Wars, 1988.
  • Slide 27
  • David Lloyd George The prime minister of Great Britain. He was a realist. An experienced politician who realised there must be compromise. The people of Britain wanted revenge. He knew this would lead to war but he represented the people.
  • Slide 28
  • Lloyd George (UK) Germany to be justly punished, but not too harshly Germany to lose its navy and colonies as these were a threat to Britain's own navy and empire Germany and Britain to become trading partners BUT Overall, Lloyd George did not want to punish Germany too harshly as he did not want Germany seeking revenge in the future
  • Slide 29
  • Britain Protect overseas territory and naval superiority Germany can remain a major power Public opinion wanted Germany to pay Represented by David Lloyd George
  • Slide 30
  • Great Britains Peace of Vengeance David Lloyd George of Great Britain had two views on how Germany should be treated.David Lloyd George His public image was simple. He was a politician and politicians needed the support of the public to succeed in elections. If he had come across as being soft on Germany, he would have been speedily voted out of office. The British public was after revenge and Lloyd George's public image reflected this mood. "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two very common calls in the era immediately after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support, echoed these views.
  • Slide 31
  • Lloyd Georges Private Views He was very concerned about the rise of communism in Russia. He feared that it might spread to western Europe. After the war had finished, Lloyd George believed that the spread of communism posed a far greater threat to the world than a defeated Germany. Privately, he felt that Germany should be treated in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the expected spread of communism. He did not want the people of Germany to become so disillusioned with their government that they turned to communism.
  • Slide 32
  • Private Views of Lloyd George Continued Lloyd George did not want Germany treated with lenience but he knew that Germany would be the only country in central Europe that could stop the spread of communism if it burst over the frontiers of Russia. Germany had to be punished but not to the extent that it left her destitute. However, it would have been political suicide to have gone public with these views.
  • Slide 33
  • Lloyd George (UK) There was pressure at home to make Germany pay if he had been too soft he would have been voted out as PM. Lloyd George hated the Treaty. However "Hang the Kaiser" and "Make Germany Pay" were two very common calls in the era immediately after the end of the war and Lloyd George, looking for public support, echoed these views. He liked the fact that Britain got German colonies, and the small German navy helped British sea-power. But, although many British people wanted to make Germany pay, Lloyd George thought that the Treaty was too harsh, and that it would start another war in 25 years time. What did Lloyd George like and dislike about the Treaty?
  • Slide 34
  • George Clemenceau President of France. Clemenceau had seen France invaded by Germany in 1870 and 1914, he wanted to make sure this would never happen again. France had suffered greatly during the War they wanted compensation and revenge. Uncompromising. He was seeing redwanted revenge
  • Slide 35
  • France Bitter over French and Prussian War Permanently weaken Germany to protect France (after two invasions) Some wanted Germany divided Represented by Premier Georges Clemenceau
  • Slide 36
  • Frances Views: A Peace of Vengeance Georges Clemenceau of France had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again.Georges Clemenceau This reflected the views of the French public but it was also what Clemenceau himself believed in. He had seen the north-east corner of France destroyed and he determined that Germany should never be allowed to do this again. "The Tiger" did not have to adapt his policies to suit the French public - the French leader and the French public both thought alike.
  • Slide 37
  • Clemenceau (France) Clemenceau liked the harsh things that were in the Treaty, especially reparations, because they would weaken Germany while helping France to recover. He had one very simple belief - Germany should be brought to its knees so that she could never start a war again (France had been invaded by Germany before in 1871). He liked the idea of a small German army, and the demilitarised zone in the Rhineland, because he thought that this would protect France from attack in the future. Also, he was pleased that France received Alsace- Lorraine as this had been taken off France by Germany in 1871. In truth though, he wanted the Treaty to be harsher. What did Clemenceau like and dislike about the Treaty?
  • Slide 38
  • Vittorio Orlando Italian Prime Minister. Wanted land and territory for Italy. Self determination stopped Italy getting the lands especially Fiume. Walked out of the meeting when he didnt get his way in April 1919. Returned to sign the Treaty in May.
  • Slide 39
  • Italys Views: Obtain Land Linked to the "Big Three" was Italy led by Vittorio Orlando.ItalyVittorio Orlando He was frequently left on the sidelines when the important negotiations took place despite Italy fighting on the side of the Allies. Why was Italy treated in this manner? 1)At the start of the war in 1914, Italy should have fought with Germany and Austria as she had signed the Triple Alliance which dictated that if one of the three was attacked, the other two would go to that country's aid.Italy 2)Italy did not join in on Germany's side but waited until 1915 and joined the side of Britain and France. 3)This association with Germany was enough to taint Italy in the eyes of the "Big Three".
  • Slide 40
  • Treatment of Italy Continued Why was Italy treated in this manner? 4)Also Italy had not played an overwhelming part in the war. Her army had been beaten at the battles of Caporetto. 5)Her strategic importance to central Europe was minimal whilst Britain dominated the Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta and Gibraltar. Italy's potential military clout in 1919, should the need arise to put pressure on Germany and Austria, was limited.
  • Slide 41
  • Through the doors at the endcome four officers of France, Great Britain, America and Italy. And then, isolated and pitiable, come the two Germans, Dr. Muller and Dr. Bell. The silence is terrifyingThey keep their eyes fixed away from those two thousand staring eyes, fixed on the ceiling. They are deathly paleThere is general tension. They sign. There is general relaxationWe kept our seats while the Germans were conducted like prisoners from the dock. (Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919.) After reading this source, how do you think the Germans felt at the end of World War One? Peace
  • Slide 42
  • Treaty of Versailles end of WWI The main points of the Treaty [BRAT] 1. Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war 2. Germany paid Reparations for the damage done during the war.
  • Slide 43
  • Versailles cont.. 3. Germany was forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only six battleships, and an Army of just 100,000 men.
  • Slide 44
  • Versailles 4. Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see map). Germanys colonies were given to Britain and France.
  • Slide 45
  • Germany had to hand over some 70,000 square kilometres of land. This accounted for about 13% of all of her land and six million of her people who lived there.
  • Slide 46
  • An Allied Army was to occupy the Rhineland for a period of fifteen years. No German troops were to be allowed into the occupation zone.
  • Slide 47
  • Treaty of Versailles Items The Treaty of Versailles includes 440 articles. The principal items are: Germany has to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France. Germany has to cede the coal mines in the Saar-area to France. Germany has to cede an area with Moresnet, Eupen, Malmdy and St. Vith to Belgium. Germany has to cede the main part of West-Prussia and almost the whole province of Posen to the new state of Poland. Germany has to cede all colonies: Togo en Cameroun, the territories in East- and South-West Africa, islands in the Pacific and possessions in China.
  • Slide 48
  • Treaty of Versailles Items Continued All German properties in foreign countries are confiscated. Germany has to cede all war material to the Allies. German compulsory military service is abolished, as well as the General Staff. Germany is not allowed to have tanks, airplanes, submarines, large warships and poison gas. During 15 years Germany is not allowed to station troops on the left border of the river Rhine and in a 50 km strip on the right border of the Rhine. The total size of the Germany army is not to exceed 100,000 men.
  • Slide 49
  • Treaty of Versailles Items Continued The German navy has a maximum of 15,000 men. Germany is allowed a total of 4,000 officers. Germany is not to take part in the League of Nations. Austria has to cede South-Tyrol to Italy. Turkey has to cede all foreign possessions. England gets Iraq, Palestine and Trans- Jordan, France gets Syria and Lebanon.
  • Slide 50
  • Treaty of Versailles Items Continued Germany has to cede to the allies all seagoing ships with a carrying capacity exceeding 1600 Brt, plus half of all ships between 1000 and 1600 Brt. Furthermore one fourth of the fishing fleet and two fifths of the inland navigation fleet has to be ceded. Germany has to cede large amounts of machinery and building materials, trains and trucks. Germany has to deliver certain amounts of coal, chemicals, dye and fuel for many years. All German sub-ocean telegraph cables are confiscated. Germany has to pay 20 billion goldmarks.
  • Slide 51
  • War Guilt Clause Article 231 of the Treaty "The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies. Germans felt the clause was unjust
  • Slide 52
  • Mandate System Germany lost all overseas territories and a mandate system set up where Allied Countries pledged to prepare the subjects for self-government South-West Africa under South Africa and Ruanda- Urundi went to Belgium; Tanganyika, Nigeria & Gold Coast went to Great Britain; Togo and Cameroons went to France Ottoman Empire lost control of Arab lands in the Middle East Palestine, Iraq & Transjordan mandate of Great Britain; Lebanon & Syria mandate of France
  • Slide 53
  • Africa Mandates http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Ger_claims_Prof_Delbruck_1917.jpg
  • Slide 54
  • Middle East Mandates http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3860950
  • Slide 55
  • THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 WAR GUILT CLAUSE GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORY GERMANYS MILITARY FORCES REDUCED GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIES NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA REPARATIONS Germany had to accept blame for starting WW1 - Army restricted to 100,000 men. - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats. - Germany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland. Germany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa]. RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISED Germany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds). The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically
  • Slide 56
  • Slide 57
  • Things to Consider about the Treaty o Note 1: The reparations were progressively reduced by the Dawes (1924) and Young (1929) Plans. In 1932 they were forgiven completely. By that time the damage had been done: 1. Destruction of the German currency and economy - what was left after the war anyway -, and 2. Destruction of the nation's political stability that allowed major riots and street battles between Communists, Nazis and others, leading to the successful grab for power by Adolf Hitler.
  • Slide 58
  • Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 2: The terms imposed on Germany at Versailles were much more mild than those Germany had imposed on Russia (the Brest-Litovsk treaty, summer 1918), or those that Germany planned to impose on the Western Allies if she had won the war - including, among other things, the subjugation of Belgium, innocent victim of German aggression in 1914.
  • Slide 59
  • Things to Consider about the Treaty Note 3: Had the Versailles Treaty been applied as envisioned, Germany would not have been rearming in 1932. 1. The fact that Germany did rearm was not a problem brought about by the Treaty. 2. In the end, Versailles became a dog's dinner. It neither crushed Germany enough to stop her rise again, yet it was still able to humiliate her.
  • Slide 60
  • 1914--------------------1919
  • Slide 61
  • Newly Formed Countries Yugoslavia Czechoslovakia Poland East Prussia Lithuania Latvia Estonia Turkey Finland Separate Austria and Hungary
  • Slide 62
  • Redrawn Boundaries After Treaty Here are the newly formed countries out of the old Austria- Hungary, German, and Ottoman Empires.
  • Slide 63
  • Old Countries with New Borders Italy Greece Bulgaria Romania Belgium Denmark France
  • Slide 64
  • Slide 65
  • A German nationalist responds to the terms of the treaty: People and government have, during the most recent days, unambiguously made clear that we cannot sign the document which our enemies call a peace. One thing is certain, that any government, which, by its signature, would confer upon this work of the devilthe halo of right, would, sooner or later be driven outNothing is left but to remain cold-blooded, offer passive resistance wherever possible, and show contempt and pride ---Alfred von Wegerer May 28, 1919 Do this on your Left Side: What is his view of the Treaty of Versailles? What is he threatening? Why does this not bode well for a lasting peace?
  • Slide 66
  • Gave rise to Hitler who used the Treaty of Versailles as a rallying cry for nationalism and revenge. Dictated Peace of Versailles
  • Slide 67
  • What was the League of Nations? An idea of American President Woodrow Wilson following the first world war An international police force made up of representatives of many countries An organisation that would allow disputes to be settled without resorting to war, based in Geneva (neutral).
  • Slide 68
  • Differing views on how the League should operate: AmericaBritainFrance A world parliament where representatives would meet regularly to decide on matter which affected all of them A simple organisation that would meet during emergencies A strong League capable of enforcing decisions with its own army
  • Slide 69
  • Each of these types of League has advantages and disadvantages: Which idea do you think is best and why? Write on your Left Side. France: Although Frances idea of a strong League would mean it could be an effective force, the League was meant to be centred on peace. Potentially, its own army could provoke another war Britain: Britains simpler idea would mean that the League would merely dealing with emergencies rather than working on preventing them from of occurring in the first place America: Americas version of the League would be expensive and a complicated to organise, although it might have been the most effective version in terms of keeping peace
  • Slide 70
  • However, the idea of joining the League was not popular with all Americans Many Americans did not think the Treaty of Versailles was fair. As the League was linked with the treaty, they did not want to be a part of it Americans wanted to stay out of disputes that might enter their troops into the kind of carnage of the first world war Others wanted to avoid the economic cost of joining the League Many Americans were anti-French or Anti-British. They thought the League would be run by these countries and did not want to get involved with their affairs
  • Slide 71
  • Wilsons party lost the election in 1919. His opponents promised to follow a policy of isolationism (staying out of international affairs). And so America did not join the League of Nations
  • Slide 72
  • The League of Nations Encourage co-operation Stop aggression Disarmament Improve social conditions AIMS
  • Slide 73
  • Aims of the League 1.Discourage aggression from any country 2.Encourage co-operation in business and trade 3.Encourage disarmament 4.Improve working and living conditions for people across the world
  • Slide 74
  • Membership: What problems do you see from this? 42 members - by 1930s 59 Defeated countries could not join e.g. Germany Russia excluded because communist USA did not join - isolation from world affairs A club for the victorious?
  • Slide 75
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:League_of_Nations_Anachronous_Map.PNG#file
  • Slide 76
  • When it opened, some countries were not members of the League: America:- had become isolationist Germany:- As a defeated country who was blamed for staring the Great war, Germany was not invited to join Russia:- Were not invited to join the League, mainly due to their Communist government
  • Slide 77
  • The Structure of the League of Nations
  • Slide 78
  • Structure The Assembly Each country one vote The Council Met several times a year and in emergencies 5 permanent members Each had right to veto any idea The Secretariat Kept records - civil service Permanent court of International Justice Based at The Hague Settle disputes peacefully No power of enforcement
  • Slide 79
  • Powers of the League If a country ignored the ruling of the League it could: Put pressure on Refuse to trade - sanctions Send in troops - member countries join together
  • Slide 80
  • Powers of the League The Covenant of the League set out three ways the League could settle disputes: 1.A hearing by a neutral country 2.A ruling by the International Court of Justice (whats the weakness with this?) 3.An Inquiry by the council
  • Slide 81
  • If this didnt work the League could take action MORAL SANCTIONS Put pressure on the guilty country to stop. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS Members would refuse to trade with the guilty country. MILITARY SANCTIONS Members of the league would join armed forces together to take action NOTE: never used! Can you see any weaknesses in the Leagues powers? Respond on Left Side.
  • Slide 82
  • Strengths of the League Many countries supported it in early days - they wanted peace Had some early successes: a)Settled some land disputes in 1920s b)Helped refugees, c)Dealt with spread of disease, d)Fought for better conditions for people
  • Slide 83
  • Successes in the 1920s With the Leagues help over 400 000 prisoners of war were returned home The slavery Commission brought about the freeing of over 200 000 slaves in British-owned Sierra- Leone and organised raids against slave owners and traders in Burma The Health Committee worked hard to defeat leprosy and malaria. It later became the World Health Organisation Sweden accepted the Leagues decision to give the Aaland islands to Finland. The two countries thereby avoided going to war for them The League divided Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland after a plebiscite showed a clear divide. Both countries accepted this decision.
  • Slide 84
  • Slide 85
  • Weaknesses of League USA didnt join No real power - relied on goodwill and persuasion No permanent army Disarmament not realistic Structure a disaster - everyone had to agree before any action taken
  • Slide 86
  • 1929 Wall Street Crash! This is MAJOR turning point for the league: *Many members of the League were now focussed on solving domestic problems. *The crash created a depression in Europe causing unemployment and poverty. Dictators rose to power as they promised a solution to problems. These were new problems for the League to face *Had a major effect on Japan who relied heavily on international trade. This would eventually contribute towards the invasion of Manchuria
  • Slide 87
  • Failure of Collective Security During the 1930s three powers--Japan, Italy and Germany--grew increasingly aggressive. Each sought to enhance its influence and to expand its territory through the use of military force. Anxious to avoid war, the Western democracies yielded time and again to the aggressors. World History: Continuity & Change, p.684