# arithmetic circuits ii

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Arithmetic Circuits II. Anselmo Lastra. Overflow. Two cases of overflow for addition of signed numbers Two large positive numbers overflow into sign bit Not enough room for result Two large negative numbers added Same – not enough bits Carry out can be OK. Examples. 4-bit signed numbers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1Arithmetic Circuits II
Overflow
Two large positive numbers overflow into sign bit
Not enough room for result
Same – not enough bits
The UNIVERSITY of NORTH CAROLINA at CHAPEL HILL
Examples
-7 -7
4 + 4
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Overflow Detection
Condition is that either Cn-1 or Cn is high, but not both
The UNIVERSITY of NORTH CAROLINA at CHAPEL HILL
Multiplier
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Combinational Multiplier
Half adder computes sum. Will need FA for larger multiplier.
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Larger Multiplier
Sequential Multiply
Bitwise multiply
Shift
If we have time later in semester we’ll look at fancier multipliers
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Contraction
Example: Incrementing
Very common
Eliminate Unneeded Gates
Multiplication by Constant
What is the circuit?
Multiplication by Pwr of 2
Just wires
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Arbitrary Constant
Contraction Not Always Best
Example of decrementer in book
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Sign Extension
16-bit immediate to register, for example
Can’t just add zeros (zero fill)
Would turn 4-bit -5 (1011) to 8-bit +11 (00001011)
Sign extend (fill with left digit)
1011 to 11111011
We’ve Covered