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Republic of the Philippines
Department of EducationRegional Office IX, Zamboanga Peninsula
ARTSQuarter 3 - Module 2:
Arts and Crafts of Mindanao
Name of Learner: ___________________________
Grade & Section: ___________________________
Name of School: ___________________________
WHAT I NEED TO KNOW
In this module, you will be introduced to the different arts and craftsand designs of Mindanao. Thus, learning the different arts and crafts ofMindanao – the salient features of arts of Mindanao by showing therelationship of the elements of arts and processes among the diversecultural communities in the country. You will also learn the relationship ofthe development of crafts in specific areas of the country through creatingproducts that can be assembled with local materials guided by traditionaltechniques.
The arts and crafts of Mindanao include their cultural attire, textiles,tapestries, crafts, accessories and body ornaments which are a combinationof designs from indigenous people that resides in the regions and thecolorful and rich influence from their indigenous belief system. You will alsolearn in this module the relationship of Mindanao’s arts and crafts toPhilippine culture and tradition that play Islamic influences and indigenouspractices.
At the end of this module, you are expected to:
a) Incorporates the design, form, and spirit of artifacts and objects fromMindanao to one’s creation A7PL-IIIh-4;
b) Traces the external and internal influences that are reflected in thedesign of an artwork and in the making of the craft A7PL-IIIh-4;
c) Creates crafts that can be locally assembled with local materials,guided by local traditional techniques A7PR-IIIc-e-1;
d) Derives elements from traditions/ history of a community for one’sartwork A7PR-IIIf-2;
e) Shows the relationship of the development of crafts in specific area ofthe country according to functionally, traditional specialized expertise,and availability of resources A7PR-IIIf-3;
f) Shows the relationship of Mindanao’s arts and crafts to Philippineculture, traditions, and history, particularly with Islamic andindigenous influences A7PR-IIIh-4
WHAT I KNOW
Activity 1: I can do it!Below is a list of different artworks. Put a check after each artwork that youthink you can also make. You can check more than one item.
1. Paper Cutting _____________2. Weaving _____________3. Painting _____________4. Sculpture _____________5. Wood Carving _____________
Activity 2- Fix Me!
Instructions: Arrange the following rumbled words in the box in relation toarts and crafts of Mindanao to form the correct word by following the givenguided meaning.
1. _____________ Referred as the “People of the Lake”
2. _____________ The significant symbol of Maranaoart
3. _____________ A musical instrument composed ofeight different-sized brass gongs laid upon a rack
4. _____________ Most popular group of people becauseof their skills in weaving
5. _____________ Refers to traditional & unique carving
Mindanao referred to as “The Land ofPromise”, is the second largest concentration ofethno-linguistics groups and culturally-diverseislands.
These groups are mostly Muslims fromthe Badjao, Iranun, Jama Mapun, Kalagan,Kalibugan (Subanen who were converted toIslam), Manobo, Maguindanao, Sama Bangingi,Sama Pangutaran, Samal, Sangil, Tausug, andYakan groups. Other groups are the Lumads, orthose who have their indigenous beliefs andtraditions instead of converting to Islam orChristianity.
1. Describe the linesand shapes used
in the jar.
2. What colors madethe design more
Activity 3- Artist’s Eye
WHAT IS IT
Arts and Crafts of Mindanao
ATTIRE, TEXTILES, AND TAPESTRIES
Traditional Clothing of the B’laan
The Bilaan or B’laan is an ethnolinguisticgroup that inhabit some parts of South Cotabato,North Cotabato and Davao del Sur. B’laan is acombination of two words, “bila”, which means“house”, and “an” which means “people”.
They are known for embroidery, brassornaments and beadwork that are integrated in theirtraditional clothing. They wear clothes woven from
abaca embellished with embroidery, buttons, and beads. The women wearheavy brass belts with numerous tiny bells that hang around their waistline.
Describe the elements of arts and principles of design used in the designs ofthe different art forms of Mindanao
3. Describe thepattern and texture of
They also cut mother-of-pearl into small shapes that look like sequins calledtakmun to form geometric patterns.
Traditional Clothing of the Bagobo and the T’boli
The Bagobos are a group of people that live inDavao. The name of this ethnolinguistic group comesfrom the words “bago” (new) and “obo” (growth). Thisis because they are believed to have come from themixture of the native population with the Hindumigrants that entered Mindanao during the SriVijayan and Malapahit empires.
The men wear t’nalak shorts, an undershirt, and a t’nalak coat. Thebagani (hero/warrior) wear blood-red clothes and a head kerchief calledtangkulu. These articles of clothing represent their courage.
The T’boli who live in and aroundLake Sebu, South Cotabato, are famous fortheir complicated beadwork, wonderful wovenfabrics, and beautiful brass ornaments.Similar to Bagobos, they regard the t’nalak assacred. Traditional wedding rituals involve theexchange of this textile. During the birth, it isused as cover.
Traditional Clothing of the Mindanao
Maranao means “People of theLake”, referring to people who occupy thelands surrounding Lake Lanao. They arefamous for their artworks, intricateweaving, wood carving, metal craft, andtheir epics.
The Maranaos are known for theirMalong. The malong is a traditionalFilipino tube skirt that is made of hand-woven or machine-made multi-coloredcotton cloth, bearing a variety of geometricor floral designs. It can be used in manyways.
The malong is similar to the sarong worn by peoples in Malaysia,Brunei and Indonesia. But unlike the Sarong, the malong is longer and isstitched together at both ends to make a tube.
The Malong is an important part of the Maranao life. A newborn iswrapped in it and, as he or she grows, it becomes a part of his or her dailylife as clothing and as material for everyday use. A traditional dance calledKapa Malong Malong or Sambisa Malong, demonstrates the various ways ofwearing a malong and its uses.
Traditional Clothing of the Yakan
Basilan is the home to the Yakans. They are popular for their skills inweaving. They weave very intricate designs in their textiles, which they usefor their clothes and other accessories. Yakan hand-loomed fabrics areknown for their use of bold colors and geometric patterns. The traditionalYakan art of weaving originated from their hometown Lamitan in the islandof Basilan.
Yakan fabrics are traditionally used as garments. The seputangan is asquare cloth used by the Yakan women as a head cover or as belt. Thebadjulapi is a tight blouse with long sleeves. It is ornamented with gold,silver, or bronze buttons.
CRAFTS, ACCESSORIES, AND BODY ORNAMENTS
The Sarimanok is a legendary bird of theMaranao. It comes from the words “sari” meaningcloth or garment and “manok” for chicken. It hasbecome a significant symbol of Maranao art. It isdepicted as a fowl with colorful wings and featheredtail, holding a fish on its beaks or talons. The headis profusely decorated with scroll, leaf, and spiritualmotifs. It is said to be a symbol of good fortune.
It refers to traditional and to unique carvingand prominent any design among the Moro ethno-linguistic communities. The name comes from anold Malayan word which means carve or “ukit” infilipino. It is referred to as Okir in Maranao whileOkkil in Maguindanao.
Face Makeup and Body Ornaments
A distinct form of visual arts of the Yakan is thefacial make-up applied on brides and grooms. Afterapplying a foundation of white powder, dots and linesare painted on the faces, creating the effect of formaland elaborate masks which match the ornatecostumes of the couple.
1. Hilot – is a heavy brass belt worn bywomen during festivals. The T’boli nobilitywear it with bracelets and anklets,furnished with ball-bearings that make asound as the wearer walks. The bells thatare hung from the distinctive brass orbeaded belts signal the approach of awoman.
2. Suwatlmimotis – a wooden comb withcolored glass beads hanging from it, worntoward the back of the head.
Brass Making - Kulintang
The Kulintang is a musical instrumentcomposed of eight different-sized brass gongslaid upon a wooden rack. It is made of brasswith intricate designs and embossed top whereit can be hit by wooden mallets to producemusic. Other brass instruments include thegandang, the two -headed cylindrical drums, aswell as the duahanagong pair consisting of thebua and pulakan.
The Torogan is the ancestral house of theupper-class Maranao. It is the dwelling place of thedatu along with his wives and children. There could notbe any house larger than Torogan of the datu withinthe sultanate, for this signifies rank, prestige, andwealth.
The National Museum has declared the Maranao Torogan, specificallythe Kawayan Torogan as one of the National treasures through MuseumDeclaration No. 4-2008.
The Panolong is a wing-like ornament of aTorogan flaring out from the beams. This okircarving usually features the naga or serpent,pakorabang or stylized fern, as well as floral andstar-and-bud motifs.
The Bajau, also known as Sama-Bajau,are the “Sea Gypsies” or Nomads of the SuluSea. Their main source of livelihood is fishingand hunting, thus, most of them live in boat
houses or houses on stilts around the Sulu archipelago.
The Grand Mosque of Cotabato
The largest mosque in the Philippines, theSultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Masjid or alsoknown as the Grand Mosque sitting near theidle banks of Tamontaka River is founded by thePhilippine Government and the Sultan of Brunei,for whom the masjid was named.
Fort Pilar of Zamboanga
The historical Fort Pilar, also calledReal Fuerza de Nuestra Senora del Pilar deZaragoza, was founded in 1635 and still standsstrong until today.
Monastery of the Transfiguration of Bukidnon
The Monastery is located a top of the hill ofMalaybalay, Bukidnon, founded by Fr. AbbotEduardo Africa and run by the Benedictine Monks.The pyramid-like structure was designed by theNational Artist for Architecture.
Santo Rosario Church of Camiguin
The church is located at the town of Sagay, Camiguin Island. Theoriginal church was built in 1882 using coral stones, but the oldinfrastructures were too weak. It was retrofitted with steel bars usingmodern building techniques. The builders used local materials, particularlywoven bamboo skin which highlights the local traditions of the island.
An earthenware vessel for secondary burial fromSarangani Province. These artifacts were firstdiscovered in 1991 and are now in the protection ofthe National Museum. Some experts argue that thesejars are not only artistically significant, they also holdkey information of historical and anthropologicalimportance.
T’boli Wood carving and Brass casting and Pottery
Wood carvers get their inspiration from the wildlife in their local area.Artisans use the lost-wax casting method to produce more copies ofsculpture with intricate designs such as bells, boxes and figures.
Maranao Wood Carving and Metal Casting
1. Rarub-A-Klong is a metallic armor made of brassplates, carabao horn and interlocking ringlets. It isa protective armor of Moro warriors as acounterpart to the vest used by the Spanish soldiers.
2. Kampilan is a single-edged steel sword with ahandle made of hand carved ivory in a form of thehead of the Naga or a serpent, handcrafted gold,and hanged horse hair at the bottom of the handle.
3. Batige is a large manually carved wooden top inlaidwith mother-of-pearl. It is used by adult males to testtheir skills and strength.
4. Kendi is an heirloom teapot or kettle used for hot water,coffee, or tea.
5. Gador is a large intricate decorated white metal tobaccocontainer. It has become an item of interior decoration inproper Maranao households.
The balanghai, also known asbalangay or Butuan boat, is a large woodenboat used by the pre-colonial Filipinos to traversethe seas for trade or migration. The finely builtboat, constructed without the use of blueprintswas taught from one generation to another. Thistechnique is still used up to this moment by boatmakers of Sibutu Island.
This boat is traditionally made by the Badjaoswho live in the Sulu archipelago. The sail, calledvinta, consists of several colors and geometricshapes, representing the colorful culture and historyof the Muslim people.
These boats are small and not meant to be used for long ocean travel.They are used for livelihood activities such as fishing and diving for pearlsand transportation around the archipelago.
Activity 3 – Find me where!
Identify the different arts and crafts of Mindanao and identify their origin.Complete the table below.
Arts and Crafts What Elements of Arts Used
2. Fort Pilar Shrine
4. Face Makeup
5. Grand Mosque
Task 1: Let’s Appreciate!Appreciate the arts and crafts of Mindanao by identifyinghow (process of making) the arts and crafts are made.
Arts & Crafts How it is made ofFace Makeup
Task 2: Look Closer!Analyze the pictures below. Write how the elements of arts andprinciples of design were used in the designs of these art forms.
Elements of Arts Lines Shapes Colors Texture
Balance Emphasis Harmony Pattern
WHAT CAN I DO
Activity 5: Pinch Pot! (Jar Making)
Make your own pot/jar using a clay or any available material you canuse in jar making
Materials: Clay, pencil, pattern
1. Form the clay into round balls.2. Using your thumb, push it in the center.3. Rotate it at the center and continue pinching the clay until you get the
desired shape.4. Start designing your pot using the tip of the pencil. You can
incorporate the designs of Mindanao to be able to show therelationship of the local influences.
Instructions: Answer the following questions. Write your answer on the spaceprovided for.
1. What makes the arts and crafts of Mindanao differ from the arts and arts ofother part of the country?
2. How can you describe the arts and crafts of Mindanao?
Instruction: Identify some recycled materials that you can use to create animpressive and creative artwork. List them in the table below and their usageand purpose.
Recycled Materials Uses and Purpose
REGION IX: ZAMBOANGA PENINSULA HYMN – OUR EDEN LAND
Here the trees and flowers bloom Hardworking people abound,Here the breezes gently blow, Every valleys and daleHere the birds sing merrily Zamboanguenos, Tagalogs, BicolanosThe liberty forever stays, Cebuanos, Ilocanos, Subanons,
Boholanos, IlongosHere the Badjaos swam the seas All of them are proud and trueHere the Samals live in peace Region IX our Eden LandHere the Tausugs thrive so free Region IX our Eden LandWith the Yakans in unity
Gallant men and ladies fair Region IXLinger with love and care Our …Golden beams of sunlight and sunset Eden …Are visions you’ll never forget Land …Oh! That’s Region IX
My Final FarewellFarewell, dear Fatherland, clime of the sun caress'd Let the sun draw the vapors up to the sky,Pearl of the Orient seas, our Eden lost!, And heavenward in purity bear my tardy protestGladly now I go to give thee this faded life's best, Let some kind soul o 'er my untimely fate sigh,And were it brighter, fresher, or more blest And in the still evening a prayer be lifted on high Still would I give it thee, norcount the cost. From thee, 0 my country, that in God I may rest.
On the field of battle, 'mid the frenzy of fight, Pray for all those that hapless have died,Others have given their lives, without doubt or heed; For all who have suffered the unmeasur'd pain;The place matters not-cypress or laurel or lily white, For our mothers that bitterly their woes have cried,Scaffold or open plain, combat or martyrdom's plight, For widows and orphans, for captives by torture triedT is ever the same, to serve our home and country's need. And then for thyself that redemption thou mayst gain
I die just when I see the dawn break, And when the dark night wraps the graveyard aroundThrough the gloom of night, to herald the day; With only the dead in their vigil to seeAnd if color is lacking my blood thou shalt take, Break not my repose or the mystery profoundPour'd out at need for thy dear sake And perchance thou mayst hear a sad hymn resound To dye with its crimson thewaking ray. 'T is I, O my country, raising a song unto thee.
My dreams, when life first opened to me, And even my grave is remembered no moreMy dreams, when the hopes of youth beat high, Unmark'd by never a cross nor a stoneWere to see thy lov'd face, O gem of the Orient sea Let the plow sweep through it, the spade turn it o'erFrom gloom and grief, from care and sorrow free; That my ashes may carpet earthly floor,No blush on thy brow, no tear in thine eye. Before into nothingness at last they are blown.
Dream of my life, my living and burning desire, Then will oblivion bring to me no careAll hail ! cries the soul that is now to take flight; As over thy vales and plains I sweep;All hail ! And sweet it is for thee to expire ; Throbbing and cleansed in thy space and air To die for thy sake, that thoumayst aspire; With color and light, with song and lament I fare, And sleep in thy bosom eternity's long night. Everrepeating the faith that I keep.
If over my grave some day thou seest grow, My Fatherland ador'd, that sadness to my sorrow lends In the grassy sod, a humbleflower, Beloved Filipinas, hear now my last good-by!Draw it to thy lips and kiss my soul so, I give thee all: parents and kindred and friendsWhile I may feel on my brow in the cold tomb below For I go where no slave before the oppressor bends, The touch of thytenderness, thy breath's warm power. Where faith can never kill, and God reigns e'er on high!
Let the moon beam over me soft and serene, Farewell to you all, from my soul torn away,Let the dawn shed over me its radiant flashes, Friends of my childhood in the home dispossessed!