the middle ages
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- 1. The Middle Ages in Europe: 1000-1500
2. The Middle Ages
- The Middle Ages were a time of great unrest and great achievement .
- Early Middle Ages500-1000 AD
- High Middle Ages10001300 AD
- Late Middle Ages13001500 AD
3. What is Middle Age?
- Middle age is the time after the Classical Age of ancient Greece and Rome and before the Renaissance
4. The Middle Ages: The Myth
- We think of knights in shining armor, lavish banquets, wandering minstrels, kings, queens, bishops, monks, pilgrims, and glorious pageantry.
- In film and in literature, medieval life seems heroic, entertaining, and romantic.
5. The Middle Ages: The Reality
- In reality, life in the Middle Ages, a period that extended from approximately the 5 thcentury to the 15th Europe, could century in Western also be harsh, uncertain, and dangerous.
6. The Lord of the Manor
- For safety anddefense, people in the Middle Ages formed small communities around a central lord or master.
7. The Manor
- Most people lived on a manor, which consisted of the castle (or manor house), the church, the village, and the surrounding farm land.
8. 9. Self-Sufficiency
- Each manor was largely self-sufficient, growing or producing all of the basic items needed for food, clothing, and shelter.
- To meet these needs, the manor had buildings devoted to special purposes, such as:
- The mill for grinding grain
- The bake house for making bread
- The blacksmith shop for creating metal goods.
- These manors were isolated, with occasional visits from peddlers, pilgrims on their way to the Crusades, or soldiers from other fiefdoms.
11. The Feudal System
- Under the feudal system, the king awarded land grants or fiefs to his most important nobles,barons, and bishops, in return for their contribution of soldiers for the king's armies.
12. Nobles and Vassals
- Nobles divided their land among the lesser nobility, who became their vassals. Many of these vassals became so powerful that the kings had difficulty controlling them.
13. The Magna Carta
- In 1215, the English barons formed an alliance that forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. It limited the king's powers of taxation and required trials by jury. It was the first time that an English monarch was subject to the law.
14. The Peasants
- At the lowest level of society were the peasants, also called serfs or villeins.
- The lord offered his peasants protection in exchange for living and working on his land.
15. Daily Life of Peasants
- Peasants lived a hard-working simple life.
- They lived in houses which had thatched roofs resting on timber framework with the spaces filled with mud and straw. There were few, if any windows.
- Many houses only had one to two rooms, there was little privacy.
- The hearth in the main room was used to both heat the house and cook the food. The smoke from the fire crept out through the roof.
16. Hard Work & High Taxes
- Peasants worked hard to cultivate the land and produce the goods that the lord and his manor needed.
- They were heavily taxed and were required to relinquish much of what they harvested.
17. Bound by law and custom
- It is the custom in England, as with other countries, for the nobility to have great power over the common people, who are serfs. This means that they are bound by law and custom to plough the field of their masters, harvest the corn, gather it into barns, and thresh and winnow the grain; they must also mow and carry home the hay, cut and collect wood, and perform all manner of tasks of this kind. -- Jean Froissart, 1395
18. 19. MEDIEVAL LIFE Cooperation and Mutual Obligations KING LORDS (VASSALS TO KING) KNIGHTS (VASSALS TO LORDS) Fief and Peasants Military AidFoodProtectionShelter FoodProtectionShelter PEASANTS (SERFS) Pay Rent Fief and Peasants FoodProtectionShelter Farm the Land Homage Military Service Loyalty
- FEUDALISM:POLITICAL SYSTEM
- Decentralized, local government
- Dependent upon the relationship between members of the nobility
- Lord and his vassals administered justice and were the highest authority in their land
- MANORIALISM:ECONOMIC SYSTEM
- Agriculture the basis for wealth
- Lands divided up into self-sufficient manors
- Peasants (serfs) worked the land and paid rent In exchange for protection
- Barter the usual form of exchange
20. Women: Household Chores
- Whether they were nobles or peasants, women held a difficult position in society.
- They were largely confined to household tasks such as cooking, baking bread, sewing, weaving, and spinning.
21. Hunting & Fighting
- However, they also hunted for food and fought in battles, learning to use weapons to defend their homes and castles.
22. Other Occupations
- Some medieval women held other occupations. There were women blacksmiths, merchants, and apothecaries.
23. Midwives, Farmers, & Artists
- Others were midwives, worked in the fields, or were engaged in creative endeavors such as writing, playing musical instruments, dancing, and painting.
24. Witches & Nuns
- Some women were known as witches, capable of sorcery and healing. Others became nuns and devoted their lives to God and spiritual matters.
25. The Catholic Church
- The Catholic Church was the only church in Europe during the Middle Ages, and it had its own laws and large income.
- Church leaders such as bishops and archbishops sat on the king's council and played leading roles in government.
26. Pope Gregory VII
- Pope Gregory VII, though unpopular,
- initiated many reforms for the church.
- These reforms became known as the Gregorian reforms.
- Pope Gregory Stated:
- The Church was founded by God Alone
- The pope alone can with right be called universal.
- The pope alone can depose or reinstate bishops
- The popes name alone can be spoken in churches
- The pope may depose of emperors
- The pope may be judged by no one
- The Roman Church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
- Bishops, who were often wealthy and came from noble families, ruled over groups of parishes called dioceses.
- Many times, they were part of the feudal system and in exchange for a fief and peasants had to provide homage and military aid to a leige lord.
28. Parish Priests
- Parish priests, on the other hand, came from humbler backgrounds and often had little education.
- The village priest tended to the sick and indigent and, if he was able, taught Latin and the Bible to the youth of the village
- Monasteries in the Middle Ages were based on the rules set down by St. Benedict in the sixth century. The monks became known as Benedictines and took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to their leaders.
30. 31. 32. Monks
- Monks were required to perform manual labor and were forbidden to own property, leave the monastery, or become entangled in the concerns of society.
- Daily tasks were often carried out in silence.
- Monks and their female counterparts, nuns, who lived in convents, provided for the less-fortunate members of the community. Monasteries and nunneries were safe havens for pilgrims and other travelers.
34. Monastic Life
- Monks and nuns went to the monastery church eight times a day in a routine of worship that involved singing, chanting, and reciting prayers from the divine offices and from the service for Mass.
35. The Divine Office
- The first office, Matins, began at 2 AM and the next seven followed at regular intervals, culminating in Vespers in the evening and Compline before the monks and nuns retired at night.
- Between prayers, the monks read or copied religious texts and music. Monks were often well educated and devoted their lives to writing and learning.
37. The Rise of Universities
- Medieval Universities got their start as educational guilds
- The first Medieval University was in Bologna, Italy .The students at the school formed their own guild in 1158.
- Later came the University of Paris, and then the University at Oxford England
38. Areas of Study
- Students in medieval universities studied the following subjects
- Grammar: The proper way to write
- Rhetoric: Public speaking, learning how to make arguments (debate)
- Logic: U