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Chapter 15: The Early Middle Ages

The Middle Ages

The Middle AgesEarly: 500 1000

High: 1000 1250

Late: 1250 - 1500

Middle Ages QuestionWhat happens when a great society collapses?

How, or why, do times change?The Middle Ages: 500 1500The Medieval PeriodRise of the Middle AgesDecline of the Roman Empirehttp://www.history.com/topics/charlemagne/videos#the-fall-of-rome

Europe Today

6th Century Europe

The Early Middle AgesOnce the fall of the Roman Empire in 476, Europe divided into many kingdoms:Germanic Kingdoms:The Franks Pope crowned CharlemagneGoths

Charlemagnes Empire

Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800

Charlemagne: 742 to 814

Power of the Medieval Church Controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe.

Monks and monasteries

TuesWedThurs131*24*25*658778Feudalism

Think of a chess set14FeudalismA political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.

King / Lord

Vassal

Knight

Peasant / Serf

FeudalismManors Self Sufficient EconomiesFeudalism

Based on mutual obligationMilitary protectionProvide knights in times of warserviceFiefs land grantsFiefs land grants protection

ShogunDaimyoDaimyoSamuraiSamuraiSamuraiPeasantPeasantPeasantPeasantLand - ShoenLand - ShoenProtectionLoyaltyLoyaltyFoodFeudalism in Japan

The emperor reigned, but did not always rule!JapaneseFeudal SocietyThe Age of Chivalry

The Age of Chivalry

Chivalry a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three mastersHis feudal lordHis Heavenly LordHis LadyJapans Code of BushidoJustice GiCourage - YuBenevolence - JinPoliteness - RelVeracity - MakotoHonor - MelyoLoyalty - ChugoArt of Seppuku

Pillaging and Plundering

European knightSamurai Warriorvs.Medieval WarriorsKnights ArmorSamurai Armorvs.Medieval Warriors

Early Mounted Samurai Warriors

Samurai Charging

Castles and Keeps Home to lord and lady, their family, knights, soldiers, and servantsMedieval Castle

Castles and Keeps

C

A

S

T

L

E

S

Osaka CastleMain Gate of Hiroshima Castle

Video Cliphttp://www.history.com/topics/charlemagne/videos#weapons-of-the-middle-ages

Charlemagne LegacyCharlemagne diedGrandsons had to divide up the empire into 3 smaller empiresBut they were weak and were destroyedCharlemagnes governing style helped create new kingdomsLaw Abiding & Strong GovtsRule of LawHas the Middle Ages influenced Americas way of life? starter activity

Which of the qualities do you think were most important for a medieval king?Rich, but not greedyHealthy & strongInspiringHard workingBraveWiseFirm but fairGood soldierGood judge of characterGod-fearingKing JohnA new English King

Cruel & Untrustworthy

Raised taxes

Overrode traditional laws

The Consequences John FacedBarons listed their grievances

List became known as Magna Carta

The king must obey some laws!

Magna CartaThe king must not interfere with the ChurchWhen a baron inherits land he should pay the king no more than 100The king cannot collect new taxes unless the barons and bishops agreeNo freeman can be put in prison without trial by a juryJustice will be without delays or bribesTraders must be able to travel freely without having to pay tollsThe Kings men must not take anyones goods without paying for them.

Magna CartaSome main tenants:

Rule of Law

Fairness of Law

Due Process

Habeas Corpus

Rule of law Powers and privileges of the king are clearly defined and limited

Fairness of the Laws"Reasonable" rules and regulations

Equal justice under the law

Recognition of customs, traditions, and established rights

Punishment in proportion to the crime

Due ProcessEstablished procedures No trial without evidence/testimony to support accusations Trials held in a timely manner Trials open to the public Trial by a jury of one's peers

Habeas CorpusNo one can be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime

East Meets WestThe CrusadesHow did the Crusades change life in Europe and beyond?The CrusadesMuslim ConquestIn the seventh century, Muslims conquered Palestine.

Initially, the Muslim conquerors allowed Jews and Christians to freely enter the Holy Land.

As time passed, some Muslim rulers were less tolerant.However, they began killing ChristiansPope Urban IIIn 1095, Pope Urban II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, called for a crusade, or war, against the Muslims.

Ultimately, the Christians fought many crusades against the Muslims.

However, Christians never permanently regained control of the Holy Land.

E. NappFor almost 200 years from 1096 to 1291-European crusaders went to the Holy Land.

Many EuropeansJoined the Crusades. Somejoined for the promise of Heaven.Others joinedhoping for wealth.CrusadersCrusaders were European Christians who heeded the Popes call to regain the Holy Land.

Crusaders joined for many reasons.

Some joined for the promise of Heaven, others for wealth, and still others for adventure.

Crusadersoften worea crosson theirbreastplate.The Effects of the CrusadesHistorians frequently call the Crusades a successful failure.

While Europeans never regained permanent control of the Holy Land and many people were killed, cultural diffusion increased.

Europeans began to trade with the Middle East.The Crusades showed Europeans that millions of people existed in the world.Opened up trade b/t Europe and the WorldE. Napp

Europeans learned about Arab art,architecture, medicine, and mathematics.The Early Middle AgesMuslims conquered Spain in 711.Threatened to spread Islam throughout EuropeThey were defeated in 732Christianity remained Europes most popular religionVikings AttackVikings Germanic people called Norsemen From Scandinavia Worshipped warlike gods Pillage and Plunder Warriors, traders, farmers, and explorers

Your TaskOn page 214 & 216 complete the note taking chartsAfter each heading write an essential question about the topic

Document Based Assessment - pg. 241Answer questions 1-3 about CharlemagneFor each question explain your reasoning

Todays QuestionHow did feudalism emerge and shape medieval life?

While answering, emphasize what you think are the positives and negatives of feudalism?

219-224Chapter 15-1The Early Middle AgesOtto I was a powerful German kingFought the MagyarsProtected the popePope made him emperor of the RomansOttos territory became known as the Holy Roman Empire

Chapter 15-1The Early Middle AgesScandinavia is a country in northern Europe Home of the Viking peopleVikings were skilled sailorsThey raided Europe between 800 and 900 A.D and conquered parts of western France called Normandy

The Rise of the Catholic ChurchSt Patrick traveled to Ireland and spread ChristianityHe established monasteriesMonks taught and preserved Roman learning

The Rise of the Catholic ChurchGregory the Great: pope 590-604 Asked monks to become missionariesThey converted Ethelbert (ruler of Kent in Britain) Irish monks converted people in northern EuropeMonks and monasteries played big part in education, health care, and preservation of knowledgePlayed an important role in Europes politics

The Rise of the Catholic Church1073 Gregory VII was elected popeHe issued a decree forbidding kings from anointing high ranking church officialsHenry IV (Holy Roman Emperor at the time) refused to obeyHenry declared that Gregory was no longer the popeGregory excommunicated HenrySo, when the German nobles chose a new emperor, Gregory accepted himHenry declared war against Gregory

The Rise of the Catholic ChurchBy 1122, we had a new emperor and a new pope They came to an agreement and called it the Concordat of WormsAgreed that only the pope could choose the bishops, and only the emperor could give them government jobsThe Rise of the Catholic ChurchCatholic Church became really powerful under Pope Innocent IIIHe controlled kings by threatening to withhold Christian rituals (like communion) from a king of a countrys people

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