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    To Investigate the Effect of Microwave Power and Duration on

    the Growth of Brassica Seeds

    Submitted To:ER. RANDHIR SINGH(Asst. Prof. and Head)

    SSCET, Badhani

    ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT,

    SRI SAI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,

    BADHANI, PATHANKOT

    M. Tech SYNOPSIS PRESENTATION

    1

    PRESENTED BY

    AKHIL GUPTAUniversity Roll No. 100756880664

    for

    MASTER OF TECHNOLOGYin

    (Electronics and Communication Engineering)

    April 2013

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    Overview of PresentationINTRODUCTION

    OBJECTIVES

    LITERATURE REVIEW

    BRASSICA SEEDS

    METHODOLOGY

    PROBLEM FORMULATION

    FACILITIES REQUIRED

    PROPOSED PLACE OF WORK

    REFERENCES

    2

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    Introduction

    Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths

    ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter

    with frequencies between 300 MHz (0.3GHz) and 300 GHz [1].

    The various sources for generating of microwaves are:Magnetron, Klystron, Travelling-wave tube (TWT), and

    Gyrotron [2].

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    Microwave is electromagnetic waves of frequency ranging

    from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, corresponding to the wavelength

    ranging from 1mm to 1m. These waves are located between

    radio wave and infrared rays in electromagnetic spectrumshown in Fig.1. Microwave apparatus generally operates at

    2.45 GHz with wavelength of 12.2 cm [3].

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    Fig.1. Electromagnet frequency spectrum [4]

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    Properties of Microwaves1.A microwave signal can propagate through the ionosphere

    with minimum loss.

    2.The ionosphere is composed of ionized atoms and electrons.

    Microwaves can go through the ionosphere and only suffer

    some refraction.

    3.Electromagnetic radiation of frequency in the tens of MHz

    range and below cannot penetrate the ionosphere where as

    microwaves can.

    4.High frequency electromagnetic waves as an information

    carrier can pack more information within its bandwidth.

    5.Microwaves consist of electric and magnetic field

    perpendicular to each other, propagate together in same

    direction [5].

    5

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    Objectives

    The objectives of the investigations are as follows:-

    1. To investigate the effect of microwave power and duration

    on :-

    (i) Fertility of Soil(ii) Fertility of Water

    (iii) Fertility of Seeds

    2. To investigate the effect of microwave power and duration onthe INFRARED spectrum of the seeds.

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    Literature Review

    Microwave emission from crops can be featured by longvertical structures. . The effects on the total emission from

    crops are estimated by means of measurements carried out on

    plants in natural conditions. The results are concluded by

    means of emission and scattering properties of the crop. Theinvestigation of optical depth and single-scattering on plant

    water content has been studied [6].

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    Anna. Al investigated the influence of microwave irradiation

    treatment on the development of lentil seeds. Best results have been

    obtained for variants with exposure time 30 s and output power 450W measured at 7th day is 10% longer than the control one, 7%,

    and 14th day is 16% higher [7].

    This paper reviews the prospects of using microwave energy to

    manage weeds. . Microwave energy effectively kills weed plants

    and their seeds; however most studies have focused on applying the

    microwave energy over a sizable area, which requires about ten

    times the energy that is embodied in conventional chemical

    treatments to achieve effective weed control. If thermal runaway

    can be induced in weed plants, the energy costs associated withmicrowave weed management would be comparable with chemical

    weed control [8].

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    Ground-based polar metric scatter meters have been effective tools to

    monitor the growth of rice crop, with much higher temporal

    resolution than satellite synthetic aperture radar systems. These

    results will be useful in retrieving crop biophysical properties and

    determining the optimum microwave frequency and polarization

    necessary to monitor crop conditions [9].

    The effect of microwave radiation on dry soil has been studied. Fivedifferent soil samples are collected from various geographical regions

    of India. The waveguide cell method was employed for the

    determination of the storage factor and loss factor of the soil. The

    methodology of for unexposed and exposed soils to microwaveradiation is given and results obtained are concluded.

    9

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    Brassica Seeds

    Brassica, also called mustards (or sarsu) are part of oil seed family

    and are regarded both as a spice and as oilseeds. India is a major

    producer of mustard and oilseeds in general. There are three main

    varieties of mustards in the world. Black mustard oil, white mustard

    oil and Brown mustard oils are the main varieties[10].

    10

    Fig.2. Brassica Seeds

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    Black mustard oil or Banarasi Rai is derived from black mustards

    and has a spicy and pungent flavour and aroma. Brown Indian

    mustard is another type of mustard which is grown traditionally in

    India but is now grown in other places too. White mustard or safaid

    rai is decidedly pungent as it contains particular substances[11].

    Uses of Brassica Seeds:-

    1.Throat Relief

    2.Chest Decongestant

    3.Cosmetic Mask

    4.Smell Remover5.Muscle-Relaxing Bath, Backache Treating Bath

    6.Relief for Tired Bath

    7.Hair Conditioner

    11

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    Problem Formulation

    As discussed in the literature review, a few experiments have been

    conducted to investigate the effect of microwaves on the living or

    non-living objects. The scope of this study will be to investigate the

    effect of microwave power and radiation on the growth of Brassica

    seeds. The effect of microwave power and duration on the IR

    (infrared) spectrum of the seeds will also be investigated.

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    MethodologyThere are three experimental categories: micro waved water, seeds,

    and soil. Each category may be treated with microwave radiation for 0seconds (control), 30 seconds, 60 seconds, 90 seconds, 120 seconds

    and 150 seconds and for different wattages viz; 30 W, 50 W, 70 W and

    90 W. Each cup contains ten seeds. These large experiments are really

    three separate experiments in one. In each case, the independent

    variable is the time that micro waved water, seeds, and soil. The

    dependent variable is the growth of the plant over time. How many

    seeds sprouted in the container by taking the Seeds, water and soil in

    the cups and microwave each at different time and wattages with the

    help of microwave oven. The number of seeds grow and the length ofeach plant grows will be noted.

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    Facilities required

    Facilities required for proposed work:

    I need following tools and equipments listed below:

    1.Microwave oven

    2. Soil, Seeds and Water

    3. Infrared Camera

    4. Visible Camera

    5. Closed Box capable of capturing INFRARED Images

    14

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    Proposed Place of Work

    1. Sri Sai College of Engineering and Technology.

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    References[1] Stuchly, M.A, Stuchly, S.S (1983) Industrial, scientific,

    medical and domestic applications of microwavesProc. of

    the IEEE. 1983, pp.467503.

    [2] Gupta, M., Wong, E. (2009), Microwave and Metal. John

    Wiley & Sons (Asia 2009).

    [3] Ulaby, F. (2007) Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics,

    5th ed. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

    [4] Osepchuk, J.M. (1984), A history of microwave heating

    applications, IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and

    Techniques, vol. 32, no 9, pp 1200 - 1224, 1984.

    16

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    [5] Hecht, E. (2002), Optics, 4th ed. Addison Wesley Publishing,

    2002.

    [6] G. Macelloni, S. Paloscia, P. Pampaloni, and R. Ruisi,"Microwave Emission Features of Crops with Vertical Stems,

    IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing, vol. 36,

    no. 1, January 1998.

    [7] Anna Aladjadjiyan, (2010), Effect of microwave irradiation

    on seeds of lentils (lens culinaris, med.), Romanian j.

    Biophys., Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 213221.

    [8] Microwave technologies as part of an integrated weed

    management strategy: A Review Graham Brodie Carmel Ryan,

    Carmel Lancaster and Roger Cousens Melbourne School of

    Land and Environment, University of Melbourne.17

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    [9] Yihyun Kim, Hoonyol Lee, and Sukyoung Hong"Continuous

    Monitoring of Rice Growth With a Stable Ground-Based

    Scatterometer System"IEEE geoscience and remote sensing

    letters.[10] oprica, L. (2008), Effect of microwave on the dynamics of

    some oxidoreductase enzymes in Brassica Napus germination

    seeds, Analele Stiinifice ale Universitatii ,Alexandru Ioan

    Cuza