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DESCRIPTIONCAPPELLA MEDITERRANEA Mariana Flores: soprano Fabian Schofrin: counter-tenor Fernando Guimarães: tenor Matteo Bellotto: bass CHOEUR DE CHAMBRE DE NAMUR CLEMATIS Leonardo García AlarcÓn : direction
2This recording has been made with the support of the Fdration Wallonie-Bruxelles (Direction gnrale de la Culture, Service de la Musique)
Le Chur de Chambre de Namur (www.cavema.be)receive support from the Fdration Wallonie-Bruxelles(Direction gnrale de la Culture, Secteur de la Musique).They also receive additional support from the Loterie Nationale and from the City and Province of Namur.
Clematis (www.clematis-ensemble.be)receive support from the Fdration Wallonie-Bruxelles
Capella MediterraneaEnsemble Cappella Mediterranea receive support from the Fondation Orange.
Recordings:September 2012: Lige, glise Saint-Jacques (Missa & Dixit Dominus) Bolland, glise Saint-ApollinaireArtistic direction, recording & editing: Jrme LejeuneCover illustration: The dome of the Salon de Embajadores in the Alczar in Seville (Photo Michael Zapke)
3CARMINA LATINACAPPELLA MEDITERRANEAMariana Flores: soprano / Fabian Schofrin: counter-tenorFernando Guimares: tenor / Matteo Bellotto: bass
CHUR DE CHAMBRE DE NAMURRocio de Frutos**, Amlie Renglet, Caroline Weynants*: sopranos Angelica Monje Torres**, Elena Pozhidaeva, Vinciane Soille: mezzo-sopranosJosquin Gest: counter-tenorNicolas Bauchau, Peter De Laurentiis, Lisandro Nesis*: tenorsPhilippe Favette, Jean-Marie Marchal, Iosu Yeregui: basses* soloists / ** soloists & percussions
CLEMATISStphanie de Failly: violin / Romina Lischka: tenor viol / Margaux Blanchard: bass violFranois Joubert-Caillet: bass viol & lyraGustavo Garguilo: cornet / Rodrigo Calveyra: cornet & recorderJacques Henry & Fabien Cherrier: trombones / Alain De Rijckere: bassoonLionel Desmeules: organ & harpsichord / Ariel Rychter: organQuito Gato: guitar, theorbo & percussions / Marie Bournisien: chromatic harpThierry Gomar: percussions
Leonardo Garca Alarcn: direction
4 1. A Beln me llego, to 6'25 Gaspar Fernandez (ca. 1570-1629)
2. Vaya de gira 5'16 Juan de Araujo (ca. 1648-1712)
3. Desvelado Dueo Mio 5'06 Tomas de Torrejon y Velasco (1644-1728)
4. A ste Sol peregrino 4'20 Tomas de Torrejon y Velasco 5. Salga el torillo hosquillo 4'07 Diego Jos de Salazar (?-1709)
6. Hanacpachap cussicuinin 2'43 Anonymus
7. Dixit Dominus a 12 8'21 Juan de Araujo Missa de Batalla a 12 Joan Cererols 8. Kyrie 2'19 (1618-1676) 9. Gloria 4'2810. Credo 10'4611. Sanctus 2'2212. Agnus Dei 2'54 13. Salve Regina a 8 3'22 Juan de Araujo
This recording followed a serie of concerts given for the Festival de Wallonie in 2012. Our grateful thanks go to the Lige team of the Nuits de Septembre for their help during the recording in the church of Saint-Jacques.
The year 1492 was an important year in Spanish history for several reasons. The fall of the city of Granada, the only remaining stronghold of the Moors, marked the end of the Reconquista in January of that year. The Alhambra Decree then pronounced the exile of all Jews resident in the Iberian peninsula in March; they would only be allowed to remain if they accepted baptism. Lastly, Christopher Columbus and his crew made landfall in the New World on 12 October. These three events marked the starting point of a period that would come to be known as Spains Golden Age. Spain was to become the most important European political power towards the middle of the 16th century; it would be known as the seat of an empire on which the sun never sets, to use an expression first associated with Charles V.
Even before the discovery of the New World could bear fruit, the newly reconquered Spain had become a beacon to the world. It is nonetheless striking that in the arts in general and in music in particular, Spain had a unique connection to other European musical traditions and to the flamenco in particular. This being said, we must also accept that the Reconquista and the Alhambra Decree did not entirely free Spain from the influences that had unconsciously been incorporated into Spanish life from Jewish and Moorish culture and tradition. The act of replacing the lute an instrument with close ties to Arab culture with the vihuela could not magically eliminate an influence that had been pervasive for centuries. How could people have thought that the melodies of the traditional Jewish songs the Sephardic songs would disappear from one day to the next and that the memory of them would not then remain for several decades? The works of Juan del Encina, the leading Spanish composer at the time of these events, even his works describing the fall of Grenada, can only be understood when all of these influences are taken into account.
FR ES DE
7Musical establishments were founded in several Spanish cities from the beginning of the 16th century onwards in accordance with the model instituted by Josquin Desprez. Desprezs name had already been mentioned in various manuscripts during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, sometimes in the form of Jusquin dAscanio a way of stating that the Fleming was a musician in the service of Ascanio Sforza of Milan. This single phrase brings an entire situation into focus: the Flemish and the Italians were to become the most important musicians of Spain. Even though they were to reign supreme in religious music, there was nonetheless a large repertoire of original secular music in Spain that was very much different from the same type of music as found in France and in Italy. This music includes pieces in three or four parts which use both voices and instruments and which are characterised by the spontaneity and liveliness of their rhythm; they approach folk music at times and stand in contrast to other more sentimental pieces. This large body of work can be found in the various manuscripts known as Cancioneros: these were copied out and distributed from the end of the 15th century until the beginning of the 17th century.
Charles V brought his own musical establishment to Madrid when he became king of Spain in 1517 and took up residence there. This was soon termed the capilla flamenca, whose function it was to share musical responsibility with the capilla espanola for the sacred music performed at court. The capilla espanola and its functions, however, soon diminished to almost vanishing point and would only re-establish its importance in the 17th century during the reign of Philip IV. The capilla flamenca dominated Spanish musical life completely: the music masters and singers in the great musical establishments were all recruited from the Low Countries. Nonetheless, Spain produced many composers who, like the Flemish, were dazzled by the splendours of Italy. One of these was Cristobal de Morales (ca. 1500-1533), who spent time in Rome and was a member of the Sistine Chapel, whilst another was Toms Luis de Victoria (ca. 1548-1611), who spent the
8greatest part of his career in Rome at the end of the century. Surprisingly enough, not one of the many Spanish composers who created a great number of works of excellent quality was ever given the opportunity to work for the Imperial chapel in Madrid; they practised their art instead in the great cathedral churches of the other Spanish cities such as Seville, Malaga, Avila, Salamanca and Toledo. Their works, however, as well as those of Francisco Guerrero (1527-1599), who spent his entire career in Spain, were nonetheless published in Venice, Rome, Louvain and Antwerp, the cities at the forefront of music publishing at that time. Not only was their talent clearly recognised and acknowledged but they also had won their place in the European musical world.
Meanwhile, as a result of the conquest of the New World, the Americas were invaded by the Spanish and the Portuguese with the particular objective of seeking out out precious metals and other valuable commodities; the Roman Catholic church and the Jesuit order in particular simultaneously became established in these countries, with the intention of converting their inhabitants. Churches and monasteries were built from Mexico to Argentina, which then needed to be supplied with singers, masters of music, instrumentalists and organs. These churches possessed musical libraries whose collections, miraculously preserved, contain not only original scores but also unknown works by European composers. A new cultural mix was in the process of being created, brought about by the flux of artists of European origin in every form and their influence on the natives of the various countries who, little by little, became familiar with all the new vocal, instrumental and compositional techniques as well as instrument making. It is striking that these elements, at first imported and then imitated, gradually became a part of popular musical tradition before finally becoming its defining characteristic; this can be seen in certain types of guitars that were influenced by the Renaissance vihuelas and in various harps.
The size and grandeur of these churches and cathedrals of the New World
9encouraged Spanish and Portuguese musicians, including the composers whose works are recorded here, to try their luck in these lands. The result of this was a blossoming of a new polyphonic tradition in Latin America at the very end of the 16th century and throughout the 17th century.
With the exception of Gaspar Fernandez, the composers featured here were all active either during the 17th century or the beginning of the 18th century. Their compositions still make use of the musical language of Renaissance polyphony, whereas music in Europe at that time was bursting forth into the new Baroque style. It is interesting to note that these works were performed in churches wh