ch 21 ppt civil war. bull run ends the “90-day war” july 1861 - battle of bull run: at 1st,...

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Ch 21 PPT Civil War

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  • Ch 21 PPT Civil War

  • Bull Run Ends the 90-Day WarJuly 1861 - Battle of Bull Run: At 1st, battle went well for the Union, but Thomas Stonewall Jackson stood firm. Confederate reinforcements arrived Union army fled.Significance: Overconfidence in the South Soldiers deserted; some feeling the war was over.North Realized war wasnt going to be over quickly

  • TMWK 21Pg. 455 Political Cartoon: What was happening along the Potomac River in 1862? How does the cartoonist portray the fighting?Pg 457 Much of the Civil War was fought in what areas? Were any battles fought in Union (Northern) areas? Where?

  • Tardy George McClellan: Peninsula CampaignGen McClellan: Commander of Potomac ArmyGreat organizer and morale booster, but overcautious trained troops, but didnt move - Lincoln ordered him to advance.1862 Peninsula Campaign- McClellan approaches Richmond via rivers captures Yorktown; continues toward Richmond, but driven back by Gen Lee in the Seven Days Battle (Summer 1862)Significance: If Union had captured Richmond, South wouldnt have lost much of their way of life.However, Lincoln decided that South cant try to break apart the govt., then come back into the Union without consequences. So Lincoln began to draft an Emancipation Proclamation.

  • Peninsula Campaign 1862

  • Name that General!

  • Name that General!

  • Name that General!

  • Name that General!

  • TMWK3. Pg 457 paragraph: What was the Norths 6 part Military Plan to win the Civil War?

  • Norths Military Plan: 6 PartsSuffocate South by sea blockade.Free slaves to undermine Souths economy.Seize control of Mississippi R. to cut the Confederacy in half.Send troops to Georgia and Carolinas.Capture Richmond.Engage the Souths main strength and overtake them.

  • War at SeaBlockade wasnt complete, but focused on Souths main ports. (coast too large to cover all)Blockade running occurred using swift steamers risky, but large profits; exchanged arms for cotton.Northern Navy enforced blockade by seizing British freighters.Southerners plated the sides of the Merrimack (renamed Virginia) with iron railroad rails. Merrimack destroyed two wooden Union ships. North Response: Union sent the ironclad Monitor to attack the Merrimack. Confederates eventually destroyed the Merrimack so the Union wouldnt get a hold of it.

  • Sea Blockade of South

  • Sea Blockade of the South

  • Pivotal Point: AntietamAug 1862: 2nd Battle of Bull Run Gen Lee against Union Gen John Pope. South won!Battle of Antietam, Maryland: Gen Lee against Union Gen McClellan. Lees battle plan was found so Gen McClellan successful in stopping Gen Lees march on Border State of Maryland. (battle was a draw). Lee went South, and McClellan didnt go after him. McClellan lost his command. (fired!)Significance: This victory for the North became the springboard for Lincoln to launch a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in Sept 1862. After Jan 1, 1863: the character of the war will be changedthe South is to be destroyed and replaced

  • TMWK4. Pg 461 Use the key to describe three points that the map is showing.

  • Proclamation Without EmancipationSept 1862: Preliminary Emancipation ProclamationJan 1, 1863 Emancipation Proclamation: Declared forever free slaves in the Confederates states in rebellion. Slaves in Border States werent affected since Lincoln concerned they would break away. Thus the Emancipation Proclamation was stronger on proclamation than emancipation.Thousands of slaves flocked to Union armies. 1 in 7 slaves ran away to Union camps.Strengthened moral cause of the Union and removed any chance of negotiated settlement.Military desertions greatly increased - not everyone agreed with the Proclamation.

  • Emancipation Proclamation

  • Blacks Fighting BondageNorth: Beginning of war no Blacks in the army. Union Navy used Blacks as cooks, stewards, firemen.Need for manpower Blacks eventually accepted; by end of war 180,000 Blacks served in the Union army.High casualties more than 38,000 died. If captured, many were put to death as slaves in revolt.

  • Blacks in the SouthSouth: Didnt enlist Blacks until a month before war ended. However, tens of thousands of Blacks forced into war related labor.Slave resistance: slowdowns, strikes, defiance, and undermined discipline.Slaves served as: Union spies, guides, scouts, or provided shelter to war prisoners.At end of war: half million slaves fled from the plantations.Many who stayed negotiated new working conditions in factories or on farms.

  • Battles ContinueLincoln replaced McClellan as commander of Army of Potomac with Gen BurnsideDec 1862: Battle of Fredericksburg, Virginia Union Gen Burnside attacked Gen Lees position. Union lost - 12,000 casualties.May 1863: Battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia Gen Lee divided his forces and sent Stonewall Jackson to attack much larger Union force lead by Gen Joseph Hooker. Lee won a brilliant victory, but unfortunately Stonewall Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own men and died.General Lee: I have lost my right arm.

  • Rest in PeaceGreat General: Thomas Stonewall Jackson

  • TMWK5. Map pg 464 What was the Northern most point that the Southern Confederates were able to reach during the war?6. Map Pg 466 During the Battle of Gettysburg, what Hill did Pickett attempt to charge up to attack the North?

  • Battle of GettysburgJuly 1863: Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (Northernmost point reached by Confederate Army) For 3 days, Union troops led by Gen George Meade fought Confederate troops led by Gen Lee and Gen George Pickett. On 3rd day, Confederate Gen Picketts brave charge up Cemetery Ridge failed. Confederate army retreated. Significance: Last real chance for Confederacy to win the war, but this loss broke the heart and back of the Confederate cause.Lincolns Gettysburg Address: invoked principles of human equality and to ensure that democracy would remain a possible form of government

  • TMWK7. Map pg 468 What 2 forts did Grant attack in Tennessee in order to get to the Mississippi River?8. Map Pg 469 Which Northern goal is being reached and what 3 states did the Union invade?

  • War in the WestFeb 1862, Gen Ulysses S. Grant: 1st success in Tennessee Captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson.Significance: Kentucky more secured to the Union and opened gateway to enter Tennessee and Georgia.April 1862: Battle of Shiloh, TN Confederate forces launched surprise attack on Gen Grant. North won!May 1863: Battle of Vicksburg, Miss. Union Gen Grants best fought campaign; His Army of the Tennessee crossed the Miss. River - drove Confederate army & Lt Gen John C. Pemberton into defensive lines surrounding city of Vicksburg: 5 days later Port Hudson fell - South loses control of Miss River.

  • TMWK9. Pg 471 Chart How many political parties arose during the Election of 1864? Name them.

  • Election of 1864Lincolns re-election depended on keeping Republican support and defeating the threat from Peace Democrats and Copperheads. VP running mate = Andrew Johnson, a war Democrat. Republican party joined with War Democrats = Union party.Democrat candidate: Gen George McClellanLincoln benefited from Northern victories in battle, plus Northern soldiers were furloughed home to vote for Lincoln.Peace Democrats and Copperheads = Northern Democrats who opposed Civil War, wanted immediate peace settlement with Confederates. Most famous Copperhead was Ohio's Clement L. Vallandigham, a Congressman.

  • Election of 1864

  • Grant Outlasts LeeAfter Gettysburg, Gen Grant replaced Meade.Gen Lee had fewer men.April 1865: Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.Gen Grant met with Gen Lee - made terms and signed surrender documentConfederate Gen JosephJohnston's army was still fighting the Union Army General Grant

  • Lincoln AssassinatedApril 14, 1865 5 days after Gen Lees surrender: pro-Southern stage actor, John Wilkes Booth fatally shot Pres Lincoln at Fords Theater.Southerners realize Lincolns death was a calamity for them. Lincolns moderation would have been better than viewpoint of the Congress.Vice Pres Andrew Johnson becomes pres.Booth was shot less than2 weeks later by a union soldier

  • Aftermath of Civil WarOver 600,000 killed; over 400,000 wounded. Costs $15 billion.Nation was re-united politically, though for generations still divided by the war.South collapsed - both economically and socially.13 Amendment: passed by Senate, April 1864; passed by the House on Jan 1865; adopted Dec 1865.

  • TMWK10. What does the Federal government need to do to re-unite North and South? Write down 2 ideas.

  • Why is Antietam considered the turning point in the Civil War?

    Why did Lincoln declare his Emancipation Proclamation? What did it really achieve?

  • Essential QuestionsWhy did both the North and the South believe that it would be a short war?Why is Antietam considered the turning point in the Civil War?Why did Lincoln declare his Emancipation Proclamation? What did it really achieve?To what extent did both free and enslaved blacks contribute to the war effort?What was the significance of Gettysburg?How did General Shermans military strategy presage modern warfare of the 20th century?What finally led to Lees surrender at Appomattox?How did Lincolns assassination change the outcome of the Civil War?What are some of the long-term influences of the Civil War?To what extent did the Civil War benefit the freed slaves?

    What does North and South need to do to re-unite politically?