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    RONALD T. ANDERSON Reliability Technology Associates


    LEWIS NERI us Army A viation Systems Command


  • ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS LTD Crown House, Linton Road, Barking, Essex IGll 8JU, England

    Sole Distributor in the USA and Canada . ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHING CO., INC.

    655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010, USA



    Soltcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1990

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

    Anderson, Ronald T. Reliability-centred maintenance. I. Reliability engineering & maintainability engineering. Management aspects I. Title II. Neri, Lewis 658.562

    ISBN-13: 978-94-010-6826-0 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-0757-7 001: 10.1007/978-94-009-0757-7

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Anderson, Ronald T. Reliability-centered maintenance: management and engineering

    methods / Ronald T. Anderson, Lewis Neri. p. cm.

    Includes bibliographical references.

    I. Reliability (Engineering) 2. Maintainability (Engineering) I. Neri, Lewis. II. Title. TA169.A63 1990

    620'.004~c20 89-77190

    Disclaimer: The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or

    the US Government.

    No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material


    Special regulations for readers in the USA

    This publication has been registered with the Copyright Clearance Center Inc. (Ccq, Salem, Massachusetts. Information can be obtained from the CCC about conditions under which photocopies of parts of this publication may be made in the USA. All other copyright questions, including photocopying outside the USA, should be referred to the


    All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the


  • Foreword

    In this book the authors provide a fresh look at basic reliability and maintainability engineering techniques and management tools for ap-plication to the system maintenance planning and implementation process. The essential life-cycle reliability centered maintenance (ReM) activities are focused on maintenance planning and the prevention of failure. The premise is that more efficient, and therefore effective, life-cycle main-tenance programs can be established using a well disciplined decision logic analysis process that addresses individual part failure modes, their consequences, and the actual preventive maintenance tasks. This premise and the techniques and tools described emphasize preventive, not corrective, maintenance.

    The authors also describe the techniques and tools fundamental to maintenance engineering. They provide an understanding of the inter-relationships of the elements of a complete ReM program (which are applicable to any complex system or component and are not limited only to the aircraft industry). They describe special methodologies for improving the maintenance process. These include an on-condition maintenance (OeM) methodology to identify defects and potential deterioration which can determine what is needed as a maintenance action in order to prevent failure during use.

    Additionally, the authors describe an aircraft flight safety prediction model that can be used to facilitate application of the ReM analysis process. The model takes into account defects and failure mechanisms that may be introduced during production, storage, operation, and


  • vi Foreword

    maintenance. Standardized functional fault tree diagrams are presented which serve as templates to facilitate application or tailoring to specific systems or major components.

    This book can be a valuable reference document for continuous improvement of the system maintenance planning and implementation process.

    JOHN F. ZUGSCHWERT Executive Director,

    American Helicopter Society

  • Preface

    This book describes a broad based management and system engineering approach to the maintenance planning process for complex systems and components. It emphasizes a preventive approach to maintenance, focusing on maintenance engineering as a methodology completely integrated with reliability and maintainability (R&M) engineering. It explicitly describes all essential life-cycle activities as well as the basic elements of a total reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) program.

    The book is based on the premise that a more efficient and cost-effective life-time maintenance and logistic support program can be established using a well disciplined, knowledge-based RCM decision logic analysis process. This process is based on the identification of safety critical failure modes and deterioration mechanisms through engineering analyses and evaluation of experience data to determine failure consequence severity levels and the most effective apportionment of maintenance tasks for each level. The book recognizes that a well planned, reliability and safety driven maintenance program leads to lower cost, lower risk and more effective maintenance tasks.

    Although this book is based on work done by the authors for US Army aircraft systems and components, it should have wide use in the engineering community; the methods and techniques described are applicable to systems used in transportation, military, nuclear, gas and other high technology industries and, thus, are not limited only to the aircraft industry. The book is addressed to the maintenance engineer, logistic engineer, design engineer, reliability and maintainability engineer,


  • viii Preface

    safety engineer, project engineer and manager, as well as graduate students and others who are involved in maintenance, logistics, system engineering and management and are concerned with the establishment of cost-effective maintenance programs that are specifically geared to the preservation of the inherent level of reliability and safety designed and built into hardware systems.

    This book provides practical up-to-date information, guidelines and engineering data pertaining to maintenance engineering and the closely related R&M engineering disciplines. It is a complete reference document covering all essential aspects of maintenance planning, specification and implementation. The book describes how to specify maintenance tasks and requirements for: (l) detecting and correcting incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects, (2) reducing the probability of failure, (3) detecting hidden failures that have occurred and (4) increasing the cost-effectiveness of a system's maintenance program. It describes how to determine and implement the most effective mix of:

    (l) Scheduled inspection or tests that are designed to measure aging or deterioration of a component or structure - based on the deterioration found, the hardware item either undergoes main-tenance or remains in service.

    (2) Scheduled removal tasks at predetermined fixed intervals of age or usage.

    (3) Unscheduled tasks consisting of routine monitoring during normal operation whereby components are allowed to fail or where impending failure can be detected prior to occurrence.

    This book is organized into six chapters, each covering an essential aspect in the planning and establishment of cost-effective, ReM derived maintenance support programs. Chapter 1 provides general information related to the purpose and scope of the book; it discusses the establishment of complete and cost-effective maintenance programs from an overall life-cycle standpoint. It also presents a brief discussion on the maintenance cost and reliability characteristics of US Army helicopters. Chapter 2 covers the basic theory and engineering foundation for ReM including a description of airline maintenance and US Army aircraft maintenance programs. It describes the ReM decision logic process and how it is applied to determine hard-time replacement, on-condition and condition monitoring maintenance requirements and the basic maintenance tasks, i.e., servicing, monitoring, rework (repair, overhaul and rebuild) and

  • Preface ix

    replacement. It also discusses how the results of an RCM analysis are used to determine logistic support plans and requirements. Chapter 3 covers R&M theory including basic hardware life characteristics, reliability degradation and growth, and reliability, maintainability and availability analysis concepts. It describes how to plan a life-cycle R&M program. It discusses the determination and evaluation of R&M parameters and how they are used as input to RCM and logistics planning. Chapter 4 covers RCM engineering practice including R&M modeling and prediction, failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) and fault tree analysis (FT A), and shows how they can be applied to identify safety critical parts and to develop criticality data essential for RCM logic analysis. Chapter 5 discusses the application of RCM within the depot maintenance process. It describes the depot maintenance work require-ments including th


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