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The Renaissance and Reformation

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The Renaissance

and Reformation

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The Italian Renaissance►Renaissance rebirth►Italian Renaissance rebirth of ancient

Greek & Roman worlds►Characteristics

Secular Urban society (City-states) Age of Recovery New view of human ability & worth

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Origins of the Renaissance►European trade with Asia increased

during the 1300s.►2. Italian merchants organized much of

this trade.►3. Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy.►4. They competed to create works that

would increase the prestige of their cities.



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Origins of the Renaissance (cont)

►5. Florence became a center for banking, art, culture, and literature.

►6. Cosimo de’ Medici wanted to makeFlorence the most beautiful city.

►7. The Renaissance began in Italy andspread throughout Europe.

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Important City-States of the Renaissance



Genoa Towers,

PalazzoContarinidel Bovolo,Venice

Façade andbell tower,Santa Mariadel Fiore,Florence

Comunegi Milano,Milan

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City State Populations

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Italian City States – Not yet the nation of ITALY

Italian Trade Routes – Notice the impact on Italy

Each Italiancity-state hadits own wealthyruler.

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Florence►Center of art,

literature, and culture.

► Florence became wealthy from the manufacturing of wool.

► Later Florence became the banking center of Italy.

►The Medici family were the greatest bankers in Florence.

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►The Renaissance started in Florence and spread throughout Europe.

►Competition between the Italian city-states led to advances in literature, architecture, art, music, science, and education.

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Medici Family►Ruled Florence, 13th 17th Centuries►Aimed to make Florence the most

beautiful city in the world – Became Patrons of the Arts. Commissioned artist (incl. da Vinci, Raphael & Michelangelo)

►Lorenzo (The Magnificent) – created peace among Italian states, ended w/his death, 2 years later FR invades

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►Home of the Catholic Church

►Popes commissionedfamous artists and architects to beautify Rome. Michelangelo,Raphael, and Botticelli all produced major works in Rome.

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Rome►The popes employed the best artists and architects of the Renaissance to build and decorate the most opulent churches in in the world.

►Michelangelo designed the finest example of Renaissance architecture in Rome, the Piazza del Campidoglio (bottom left). He also designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica (bottom right).

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Venice►Venice was the wealthiest

city-state of the Renaissance.

► It was a port city on the Mediterranean.

►Venice maintained hundreds of merchant ships and warships, and thousands of sailors.

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Genoa►Genoa is located on

the Mediterranean.►Genoa was one of two

main port cities in Italy during the Renaissance.

►Genoa was one of the wealthiest city-states of the Renaissance.

►Dominated trade in the Mediterranean

Genoa Harbor

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Milan►Milan dominated the inland

trade routes because it was the gateway to Italy from the north.

►Milan is the site of Santa Maria delle Grazie, the cathedral where Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper in the dining hall.

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Niccolo Machiavelli ► IT philosopher, diplomat, poet, musician, playwright..►Best known for The Prince – realist politics

Rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical)

“The Ends Justify the Means” “It was better to be feared than to be

loved” All this done to keep peace and stabilize

power►1st to publicly suggest immoral behavior for

govt stability

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Renaissance Society►Strict Class society

Nobility – most powerful, but smallest group►Strict rules and expectations►Born not made or earned

Townspeople►Wide range of wealth, from rich to poor►Provide goods & services

Peasants – weakest, but largest group►More freedoms as serfdom decreased►Mainly lived in rural areas, so were least

impacted by Renaissance

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The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance

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Italian Renaissance Humanism

►Stressed that man was the center of the universe and had dignity and value

►Humanism – intellectual movement based on the classics Study – grammar, rhetoric (debate),

poetry, philosophy & history (the Humanities)

►Ren Educations – based on humanism Goal – create complete citizens

►Vernacular Literature – written in common lang Dante, Chaucer, Pizan

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Petrarch: “Father of Humanism”

►Petrarch was a scholar and poet who was responsible for the recovery of manuscripts and works of Greek and Roman writers.

►He traveled throughout Europe recovering manuscripts of Cicero and other Roman authors that had been lost in monastery libraries.

►Petrarch, like other writers of the time, wrote in Latin.

Francesco Petrarch

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Dante Alighieri► “Father of the Italian

Language”►Wrote The Divine Comedy.►The Divine Comedy is

considered one of the greatest works of Italian and world literature.

►Dante was first to write in the vernacular, the language used in everyday life. Until his time, all European literature was written in Latin.

Dante Alighieri

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The Artistic Renaissance in Italy

►Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s. Pope Alexander VI: most notorious of the

Renaissances popes; spent huge sums on art patronage.

►3 Masters of the High Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael

►Sculpture & Architecture are include in Renaissance Art, both drew from Greek & Roman influenences

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New Artistic Techniques

►Fresco – watercolor on fresh plaster

►Law of Perspective

►Study of human anatomy

►GOAL – imitate nature

From Michelangelo’s Sketch Book

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Leonardo da Vinci

►Master of realism & perspective

►Studied human anatomy (cadavers) to be as accurate as possible

►Sculptor, painter, astronomer, inventor – a true “Renaissance Man”

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Leonardo da Vinci

The Last Supper

A page from one of da Vinci’s notebooks, he “coded” his work by writing backwards. He could read it, but most other people would need a mirror to read it.

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Raphael Santi►1 of the top Renaissance painters►Especially known for his “Madonna's” –

paintings of Mary the mother of Jesus►A major artist in the Vatican

Madonna of the Meadows

Madonna del Granduca

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Raphael Santi

School of Athens - fresco in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.

Thought to be Raphael’s masterpiece.

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Michelangelo Buonarroti►Painter, sculptor and architect►Most famous for work in Vatican City

Vatican City

St. Peter’s Bascillica (large domed building) – designed by Michelangelo

(St. Peter’s Square – designed by Bernini)

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Well known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel.

The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book of Genesis

The Creation of Adam

The Last Judgement

On the Alter Wall of the Sistine Chapel.

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Michelangelo, the sculptor

The Pieta – marble statue of a crucified Jesus being held by his mother Mary.

In St. Peter’s Basilica.

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Michelangelo, the sculptor

David – carved from one piece of marble from 1501 to 1504.

Said to be proportionally perfect, though David is 17 feet tall

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Northern Italian Renaissance

►Centered in Low Countries – Belg, Lux, Neth

►Due to weather- few frescoes Stained glass, wooden panels, canvas

►Jan van Eyck – Flemish, perfected use of oil paints Oils allow greater variety of color & detail

Portrait of a Man in a Turban , probably a self-portrait, painted 1433

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Albrecht Durer

►German►1 of greatest

Northern Renaissance artists

►Revolutionized woodcuts

►Studied in Italy on several different occasions

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Architecture► Architectural design

returns to the classical styles of Rome and Greece.

► Public buildings, homes and villas are designed using Greek and Roman architectural styles.

► Renaissance buildings feature columns, domes, and vaulted ceilings.

► Brunelleschi designs the first domed building.

► Perspective becomes important in architecture.

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BrunelleschiThe Basilica diSanta Maria del Fiore,Florence, alsocalled the Duomo.

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Donato BramanteSt. Peter’s Basilicain Vatican City.Started in 1506;Completed in 1626.

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The Printing Press► Johannes Gutenberg was a

German goldsmith and printer.

► Gutenberg was the first to develop movable type. This allowed for mass production of books.

► Gutenberg’s invention revolutionized book-making in Europe.

► Gutenberg was the key figure in spreading the Renaissance.

► His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history.

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IMPACT►Much easier to

publish books► Increased literacy►1450-1500, 20

million books printed covering 35,000 topics

►Vernacular Literature – written in common language Dante, Chaucer,


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Writers of the Renaissance

►With the printing press. books become more affordable and more people (mostly wealthy) learn to read

►Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli were all important writers of the time

►But there were more…

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Miguel de Cervantes►Cervantes was a Spanish novelist,

poet, painter, and playwright. He was born in La Mancha, Spain.

►Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote, the most influential work of literature to come out of the Spanish Golden Age.

►Cervantes was a man of adventure. It was said that he left Castile because of a duel.

►Cervantes got the idea for Don Quixote while serving one of two prison terms for irregularities in his bookkeeping as a tax collector and purchasing agent.

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New Words Abound…Alligator Laughingstock

WorthlessCritical Lonely ZanyEquivocal LuggageEyeball Manager Eyesore PukeGloomy Torture

But where did they come from?

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William Shakespeare►Shakespeare is considered

the greatest writer and dramatist of all time.

►Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet, Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar, A Midsummer’s Night Dream, Henry IV, Henry V, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth Night, Hamlet and more.

►Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two narrative poems, and other poems.

“All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players there, they have their exits and their entrances, and one man in his time plays many parts….”William Shakespeare

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Shakespeare►William Shakespeare (1564-1616)–

Elizabethan era Greatest of English Renaissance authors His work reflected the Renaissance ideas of

classical Greek and Roman culture, individualism and humanism

Wrote comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets

Known for the “timelessness” of his work Close to 300 movies and TV adaptations have

been made of Shakespeare’s work (e.g. Ten Things I Hate About You, a rendition of The Taming of the Shrew)

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Contributions of the Renaissance► Invention of the Gutenberg Press

►The banking industry►Exploration, colonization of world►Expansion of trade►Humanism, individual is the center of the

universe►Reintroduction of Greek and Roman

knowledge and philosophy►Gateway to modern art forms►Expansion of Greek and Roman architecture

and sculpture► Increased scientific knowledge, and desire

to know more

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The Italian Wars (1494-1559)

►Powerful IT monarchs & foreign countries (SP, FR, HRE, Ott Emp…) vied for control

►Charles I (SP) allowed sack of Rome (May 5, 1527)

Pope Clement forced to flee Aftermath:

►End of Roman Renaissance►Damaged Papal prestige►SP dominant power in IT►Charles V given freedom to act on Reformation in GermanyFYI – In commemoration, all new Swiss Guard

members are sworn in on May 6 of each year.

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►Religious reforms dividing western Christianity

►Roman Catholic Church criticized for abuse of power and corruption

►Christian Humanists–wanted to reform Church Believed through reason, and studying the

classics one could become more pious(Christ-like)

Desiderius Erasmus–father of Christian Humanism►Suggested reforming from within the Church

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Desiderius Erasmus►Erasmus was a Dutch

scholar, humanist, and theologian.

►Erasmus was ordained a Catholic priest, but never practiced priestly duties.

► Instead, he studied theology and classical Greek at the universities of Paris and Cambridge.

►Erasmus was critical of some of the practices and doctrines of the Catholic Church.

►Erasmus sought to reform the Catholic Church.


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Calls to Reform the Church

►In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by

1550) Erasmus was a devout Catholic who

sought to reform the Church, not destroy it

Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy

The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther

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Why reform?►Popes corrupted by power & lose focus

of spiritual leadership►Scientific advances contradicted the

Church►People wanted to know how to save

souls►Indulgences –a release of a soul from purgatory for monetary donation –

a HUGE abuse of Church power!

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What was the Protestant Reformation?

►Prior to the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic

►The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church

►People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church

► In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions

►The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions

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Scan graphic?

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►German Priest►Saw problems in the Church►Church believed salvation gained from faith + good work

Luther thought faith alone gained salvation►Oct 31, 1517 – Posted 95 Theses on church

door in Wittenburg, Ger His criticisms of Church 1000s of copies distributed through Germany

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The Reformation Begins►By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from

Church►Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal

power in Germany & est a German Church►By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated

Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms Called by Emperor Charles V, wanted Luther to change his ideas, Luther – “NO” Edict of Worms issued, making Luther an outlaw Luther kept in hiding by his prince

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►Followers of Luther’s religious practices

►Gained support of many German princes

►1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes’ support, he did not help the peasants

►Germany in turmoil – Catholic? Lutheran? To achieve peace HRE Emperor Charles V

accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Ger princes to choose the faith of their region)

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Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli

►Ulrich Zwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland

►Zwinglian Reformation Banned all religious relics & images Whitewashed all church interiors No music in church services Does note merge w/Luther b/c can’t agree with the meaning of communion

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Protestantism Spreads - Calvin

► John Calvin replaces Zwingli (killed in rel war)► French, fled for safety to Switzerland►1536 – began reforming Geneva, Switz.

Created a church govt of elect & laity Used consistory (moral police)

►Sent missionaries thru Eur to convert Cath.► Ideas spread FR, Neth, Scot…►Mid 16th C – Calvinism more pop than


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Reformation in England

►Political, not religious motives for reform►Henry VIII – King of England

Needs a male heir to carry on the Tudor Dynasty Married Catherine of Aragon (Aunt of Charles V,HRE Emperor) Have a daughter, Mary No son, so Henry wants a divorce! In the Catholic Church, you need an annulment, granted by the Church. The Pope grants it for a King.

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Reformation in England (cont)

►The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. HRE Emperor)

►After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church

►Archbishop of Canterbury granted divorce

►Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of Eng King control over doctrine, appointments,

etc Dissolves Cath claims, sells land &

possessions Remained close to Cath teachings

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Henry & his wives

►Henry was desperate for a son. So much so he married 6 times!!

►The saying goes… Divorced,

Beheaded, Died Divorced, Beheaded, Survived

Horrible Histories

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The Church of England

►1547 – Henry died His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne

►The Church of England- aka Anglican Church Became more Protestant Angering Catholics

►1553 – Edward dies His half-sister Mary (Catholic) takes throne She wants to restore Catholicism “Bloody Mary” has 300+ Prot burned as heretics Increases tensions btw Cath & Prot

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The Catholic Reformation►Protestantism spreading rapidly

through Eur►Church sees need to reform

Raises the standards of the clergy Inspired the Church with a renewed zeal

and morale Contributed significantly to producing the

Catholic Church as we know it today.►Pillars of Catholic Reformation

1. Reform of Papacy 2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 3. Council of Trent

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The Papacy

►Corruption had to be addressed

►Pope Paul II led papal reform Oversaw the creation

of the Jesuit order Opened the Council

of Trent Revived the


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The Jesuits

►Most significant agency of Catholic reform

►Founded by Ignatius of Loyola Spanish soldier Injured in battle

►Had a conversion during recovery, dedicated himself to the Church

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Role of Jesuits

►Missionaries Convert former and non-

Catholics ►Urged the religious

education of children►Devoted to religious and

secular education Secondary schools Colleges/Universities Seminaries

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Council of Trent

►Met over 18 year period (1545-63)►Reaffirmed Catholic teaching

Including 7 sacraments Maintained salvation was gained through

faith and good works►More strict rules for clergy

Incl more education for priests►Each diocese established a seminary

►Banned indulgences!!

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The Inquisition

►Church’s way to suppress heresy

►Infamous for its cruelty

►Followed strictly in Spain, Portugal and Rome

►Some countries, like France, refused