the middle ages

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The Middle Ages. 1. What were the Middle Ages?. Lasted from 500 – 1500 Germanic groups invaded Roman Empire Trade was disrupted People returned to rural ways of life People were less educated Monasteries preserved knowledge . 2. Who were the Franks?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Lasted from 500 1500Germanic groups invaded Roman EmpireTrade was disruptedPeople returned to rural ways of lifePeople were less educatedMonasteries preserved knowledge

  • A Germanic tribe of nomads who lived in the Rhine River Valley.In the 400s, the Franks began to invade Roman Gaul (France today)

  • Merovingian King of the Franks from 481-511He was Pagan, but In 496 his wife (Clothilde) convinced him to convert to ChristianityThe rest of his people then converted

  • Charles the HammerCarolingian who became Mayor of the Palace in 714Defeated the Muslims in 732 at the Battle of Tours

  • Ended the Muslim threat to Europe (except for Spain)Showed the effectiveness of cavalry (used by Muslims)Led to the importance of knights

  • Pepin the Short (son of Charles Martel) Convinced Pope Boniface to crown him King of the Franks (751)Pepin created the Papal States when he gave part of his territory to the PopeEnded all rule of the Merovingians and began the Carolingian Dynasty

  • Charles the GreatSon of Pepin771 King of the FranksCreated the largest kingdom in Europe since ancient RomePope Leo III crowned him King of the Romans(Cont.)

  • Paid for a revival of learning - the Carolingian RenaissanceMonks copied Roman manuscriptsOpened schools His empire was divided between his three sons who fought each other until 843 signed the Treaty of Verdun

  • Increasing violence and lawlessVikings attacked from the northMagyars (Turkish nomads) attacked from the eastMuslims attacked from the southPeople had no central government to protect them People turned to lords for protection

  • KingVassals Nobles and Bishops who were wealthy land ownersKnights defended Vassals land in exchange for fiefs (land)Peasants worked the Vassals fields; many were serfs who could not leave the land

  • Popes often crowned the Kings.All Christian Kings had to have the Popes blessing.Excommunication if the Pope was unhappy with a King, they could be excommunicated and condemned to hell.The Church could put anyone on trial who violated Canon (Church) law.

  • The climate was warmer from 800 to 1200Farmers used a new type of harness that fit across a horses chest horses could pull plowsFarmers could grow more crops when they switched from a two-field system to a three-field system

  • The Church forbade Christians from lending money at interest Jews became the source for loans.Trade increased and towns grew larger and more crowded.

  • Authors began writing in the vernacular brought literature to many peopleChristian scholars from Europe visited Muslim librariesMany Greek writings were translated into Latin.Ancient writings influenced Christian writers.

  • The Age of Faith

  • Ended marriage of Priests and Simony

  • Towering cathedrals with stained-glass windows (ex. Notre Dame)

  • Needed to protect Constantinople.

  • He wanted to take control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks

  • Crusaders captured Jerusalem.

  • Saladin recaptured Jerusalem.

  • Richard the Lion-Hearted fought SaladinCame to a truce Saladin opened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims

  • Knights attacked and looted the Christian cities of Zara and Constantinople

  • Drove the Muslims out of Spain.

  • People suspected of heresy were questioned, tortured, and executed.

  • William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) led a French Army and defeated Harold the Saxon for the English throne.William became William I of England.

  • He declared all of England his personal property.Granted fiefs to about 200 Norman lordsLaid the foundation for centralized government

  • Grandson of William I made major reforms to the royal power in England.Consolidated courts more crimes and civil cases would be tried by the Royal Courts

  • Common Law developed laws are created by decisions of the judges, earlier decisions are used as precedents.Grand Jury System a jury determines if there is enough evidence to justify a trial

  • Attempted to bring the church courts under his controlFailed after his clash with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket

  • Philip strengthened the central government in France by putting more land under his control.1204 Philip II of France Regains Normandy from the English

  • John and Richard the Lionhearted were both sons of Henry II, but Richard only spent 10 months of his reign in EnglandIneffective ruler lost territory to the French, taxed heavily and abandoned jury trials to punish his enemies

  • A large group of his vassal lords revolted against him in 1215 and forced him to sign the Magna Carta at RunnymedeThe Magna Carta required the king to observe due process of law

  • Was intended to protect the lords, but it later protected merchants and peasantsBecame the foundation of the English system of constitutional government

  • He set up courts where people could appeal their lords decision.This strengthened the monarchy and weakened feudal ties.1226 Louis IX became King of France

  • Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves to a religious life Established between 400 -700 communities called monasteries which became centres of education, literacy and learning Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St. Benedict Saints- one who performs miracles that are interpreted as evidence of a special relationship with God St. Augustine- wrote Confessions which discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Church

  • Byzantine Empire in 6th Century

  • New royal dynasty called Capetians in France System of primogeniture= system where eldest son inherited everything (instead of dividing land / property / wealth) Lords and knights however had little loyalty and began competing more fiercely for land, power, influence and control Peace of God= a set of decrees issued in 989 CE that prohibited stealing church property, assaulting clerics, peasants and women with the threat of excommunication from Church were set to protect the unarmed populace by limiting warfare in countryside Truce of God= set in 1027 CE and outlawed all fighting from Thursday to Monday morning, on important feast days and during religious days Truce encouraged idea that the only combat pleasing to God was in the defence of Christendom (idea of the righteousness of holy war) 1095 CE Pope Urban II referred to Truce of God when calling knights to the first Crusade in support of Christians

  • War of Investitures (Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV) Norman Conquests & William the Conqueror (who was crowned King of England and ordered the Doomsday Book) Magna Carta (king is subject to the law) Crusades Effects of Crusades (military failure but many positive effects (spreading of culture, goods, scientific knowledge, Arabic language and thought, economic growth in rural communities, and trade)

  • Effects of CrusadesGuild and communesTowns, cities and manorsNew thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writersCreation of universitiesNew art and architecture (gothic, castles)Knighthood and chivalryCourtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)

  • Black Deatha devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid 14th centurykilled about a third of Europes population, an estimated 34 million people.

  • Called black death because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skinSpread by fleas and ratspainful lymph node swellings called buboes buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood. damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotchesMost victims died within four to seven days after infection

    EFFECTSCaused massive depopulation and change in social structureWeakened influence of ChurchOriginated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepers

  • Roger Bacon (gunpowder)Luca Pacioli (Father of Accounting)Johannes Gutenberg (printing press)Christine de Pisan (writer); Geoffrey Chaucer (writer)Joan of Arc (Hundred Years War)Pope Urban II (indulgences)Pope Innocent IV and Bernard Gui (inquisitions)Parliamentary Government in England

  •***Rise of aristocratic Charles Martel who dominated Frankish kingdom in 8th centurySolidified claim with military victories in pushing Muslims south and establishing Frankish control of southern GaulHe confiscated land given to Church and began Church reforms that would restore spirituality to clerical lifeHis son Pepin the Short continued Church reforms and eventually with the support of reformed Church, removed last Merovingian king from throneEstablished the Carolingian dynasty, named to protect the papacy and establish the pope and bishops are the makers of kingsGreatest legacy was Charles the Great, or Charlemagne*****