300 - 1500 medieval europe 1. kingdoms and christianity – 300 – 1250 2. the early middle ages...

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  • 300 - 1500Medieval Europe1. Kingdoms and Christianity 300 1250 2. The Early Middle Ages 800 1215 3. The High Middle Ages 1000 1500 Mr. Schenk

  • The Early Middle Ages1. Charlemagnes Empire2. New Invaders3. The Feudal and Manorial Systems4. The Growth of Monarchies5. Power of the Church800 - 1215At the outset of the early Middle Ages, western Europe was a land without an empireNew forms of community took holdChristianity spread throughout western EuropeStrong, new political systems also arose, uniting much of Europe 300 - 1500

  • 1. Charlemagnes EmpireWith the , Europe had entered into a period of political, social, and economic decline.Small kingdoms competed to control the lands once under Romes central authorityAmong these kingdoms, were the Franks300 - 1500

  • Building an EmpireBy the 800s, the Franks ruled much of western and central EuropeLeaders most influential in the successes of the Franks belonged to one family the CarolingiansThe family of Grandfather Charles Martel served as a political advisor to the kingHis son Pippin III the first king of the CarolingiansHe passed to his son Charles 300 - 1500

  • Charlemagnes Rise to PowerThis medieval manuscript shows Pope Leo III crowning Charlemagne Emperor of the RomansPope Leo III, in 774, called on him to defend his Papal States against a group known as the LombardsCharlemagne and the Franks swept into Italy and defeated the raidersCharles the Great became king of the Romans

    300 - 1500

  • Charlemagnes RuleCharlemagne had tremendous power as emperor (however to large to rule)Permanent capital at Aachen (now Germany) Charlemagnes home palace officials who ruled under him in exchange for large tracts of land- oversaw his empire300 - 1500

  • A New SocietyThe Carolingian RenaissancePolitics unified Europe for the first time since the fall of RomeEducation built schools and preserved ancient writingsReligion spread Christianity among conquered peopleLaw developed a written legal code300 - 1500

  • Charlemagnes Empire Collapses: Treaty of Verdun, 843With Charlemagnes death in 814, the empire lost its centerOnce again disunity spread throughout EuropeHis grandsons divide the empire into three parts, a western, a middle, and a eastern kingdomto make matters worse invaders Vikings!300 - 1500

  • 2. New InvadersThe death of Charlemagne marked the ending of peace in Western EuropeThe Vikings, Magyars, and the Muslims all focused on their conquests of EuropePerhaps the most fierce were the warriors from Denmark known as the VikingsThe first attack of the Lindisfarne Monastery marked the beginning of a 200 year period of raids in northern Europe, a period known as the age of the VikingsThe number of ships grow: the endless stream of Vikings never cease to increase. Everywhere the Christians are victims of massacres, burnings, plunderings; the Vikings conquer all in their path, and no one resists them.A Monk of NoirmoutierThe Viking World300 - 1500

  • Who are the Vikings?The people of Scandinavia, also called Northman, Norsemen (Northern Europe)In Viking homelands, society was based on agriculture and the seaAs Scandinavians population grew, resources became limited so the Vikings decided to take what they needed from other peopleThus started the Viking raidsErik the Red conquered Greenland and Iceland 982Leif Eriksson explored North America, but did they reach Minnesota? (1100)300 - 1500

  • Viking Conquests and SettlementsFirst raids were England and northern FranceAs time passed they reached Kiev and ConstantinopleNot all were raiders, many were explorers (Iceland, Greenland, Canada) Vikings were superb ship builders and sailors (excellent navigators)Ships could withstand heavy ocean winds and carried as many as 100 warriors

    Erik the RedLeif ErikssonViking long boat300 - 1500

  • The MagyarsAs Vikings terrorized northern and western Europe, the Magyars invaded from the eastMagyars- nomads (horsemen) who settled in what is now HungaryMilitary tactic invaded small settlementsIn mid 900s, King Otto the Great crushed the Magyar raids300 - 1500

  • Moors, African Muslims in SpainIn 711, a Muslim Army from northern Africa crossed the straits of Gibraltar and made conquest of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain/Portugal)Ruled the peninsula for more than 700 yearsCordoba one of the wealthiest and most culturally advanced cities of the medieval worldIn 800s and 900s, Muslim raids in southern France, Rome Italy, and Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire, led to a shift in power from Christianity to IslamFeudalism in Europe develops in response of the invasions of the Vikings, Magyars, and MuslimsLegend has it that King Rodrigo of Spain married the daughter of one of his noblemen, Count Julian against the wishes of her father. To avenge what Julian perceived as his violated honor, he opened secret parleys with the enemy and invited with the Emir (Governor) Musa ibn Nusayr, the Muslim ruler of North Africa, who was based in Tunisia to invade Spain. The Caliph al-Walid authorized the invasion of Spain (710-711 AD), on condition that Count Julian recited the Shahada and embraced Islam. 300 - 1500

  • 3. In Europe, during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligationsAs the Middle Ages progressed, knights began to emerge as key figures in EuropeWhat was responsible for this change?The Greatest Knight?William MarshallServed the first four English kings300 - 1500

  • Origins of feudalism For protection nobles built castles to defend their lands300 - 1500

  • Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle Castles were built on hills because hilltop locations were easier to defendMost early castles were made of wood and stoneCastles were defended by nobles soldiers, known as knights300 - 1500

  • Knights and LordsBeing a knight was expensive, therefore nobles gave knights land for payment of serviceThis land was called a Anyone who accepted the land from the lord was called a vassalThis is known as the Parts of a Medieval CastleMain room of the castle called the hall dining and entertainingBedrooms separated by sheets and near latrines (bathrooms) Hay for toilet paper!!!300 - 1500

  • Feudal ObligationsFeudalism build upon relationship and serviceA knights duty to his lordProvide Remain Give A Lords duty to his KnightsGive Protect Resolve oath or loyalty between knight and his king300 - 1500

  • Chivalry: A Code of Honor and BehaviorGeneric term First appeared with military actions against non-Christian statesProtectors of their religious faith ChristianityChivalry also directed that men should honor, serve, and do nothing to displease women and maidens300 - 1500

  • Feudal system built around large estates called manorsOwned by wealthy lords or knightsSerfs peasant workers who were legally tied to the manor on which they workedManors land occupied by fields for crops and pastures for animalsThree crop rotating system300 - 1500

  • Life on the Medieval ManorSerfs at workLegally tied to the manorSerfdom was hereditaryLived in small one to two room cottages floor was packed dirt/roof was straw (cooking by fire!!!)300 - 1500

  • 4. The Growth of MonarchsThe power of the kings grew and the nature of monarchy changed across Europe in the early middle ages1066 King Harold saw what we think was Haleys comet, appear in the skyHe thought it was a sign that change was coming to EnglandWithin a year, and took the throneA Sign from HeavenWilliam the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry)300 - 1500

  • The English Monarchy England was one of the first countries in Europe to develop a strong central monarchyAnglo Saxon Rule drove out the VikingsIn 1066, William, Duke of Normandy of France, in the battle of Hastings took the English throneDomesday Book a book that William used to create a new central tax system for England

    300 - 1500

  • The English in FranceOne of Williams descendants, King Henry, married a powerful French duchess, Together, they ruled all of England and most of FranceThe kings of England become more powerful than French counterparts300 - 1500

  • Englands Political System Henry I, King Williams son, set up a court system and a department of royal finances, under an Exchequer who collected taxesHenry II, established the principle of common law throughout the kingdomUnder his court, he established a grand jury and trial by jury.1200 the power of the English kings started to worry a group of noblesNoble Revolution under King John, who tried to raise money with a new tax to help him regain France led to a 300 - 1500

  • Magna Carta, 1215The Magna Carta was a King must obtain consent from the nobles if he wished to raise taxesAlso ended kings ability to arrest and punish people without cause or to take property without legal proceduresKing is not above the lawOne of the more Important documents in the formation of modern democracies300 - 1500

  • The Beginnings of the British Parliament Great Council: middle class merchants, townspeople [burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr., burghers in Ger.] were added at the end of the 13c. eventually called governing body of England today by 1400, two chambers evolved: House of Lords nobles & clergy and the House of Commons knights and burgesses.300 - 1500

  • The French MonarchyAfter the death of Charlemagne, England controlled France for quite sometimeHugh Capet Capetian family who managed to expel the English nobles

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