indogermanisches etymologisches woerterbuch

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List of language abbreviations in the IED
"lc. "lo!incian "lk. "lo!ak "ln. "lo!ene "ogd. "ogdian ". "anish "1ic. "outh 1icenian ""l. "outh "la!ic "um. "umerian (non-I%) "& "iss &erman ("chei$erdeutsch) "Iran. "outhest Iranian  6a0. 6a0ik  6hrac. 6hracian  6reg. 6regorrois 5kr. 5krainian Van. Vannetais Vand. Vandal Ved. Vedic elsh a. akhi Bl. est Baltic " est-"a4on "l. est "la!ic  7agh. 7aghnobi  7a$. 7a$gulami  7i. 7idgha 8hem. 8hemaitian
 6he database reresents the udated te4t o2 9. 1okorny:s ;Indogermanisches %tymologisches <rterbuch; scanned and recogni$ed by &eorge "tarostin (osco) ho has also added the meanings. 6he database as 2urther re2urnished and corrected by A. +ubotsky. 1okorny:s te4t is gi!en ractically unchanged (only a 2e ob!ious tyos ere corrected) e4cet 2or some rearrangement o2 the material. 6he numbers in the lemmata are gi!en a2ter the root (e.g. 1okorny:s >. bher- aears as bher->) because automatic alhabeti$ation ould otherise too much a?ect the order o2 the lemmata.
+aryngeals are sounds that occurred in the 1roto-Indo-%uroean language caused changes to neighbouring sounds and disaeared. 6hey ere ostulated to e4lain anomalies in the !erb system and they ro!ed use2ul 2or e4laining other henomena. It as many decades be2ore con3rmation o2 their e4istence as 2ound in the nely decihered ,ittite language. +inguists are still not agreed on ho many there ere or ho they ere ronounced.
consonant - e - consonant- the base !oel -e- surrounded by consonants. Other !oels ere deri!ed 2rom them.
 6he anomalous !erb stems ere those that had no consonant receding such as Ded- :eat: or a long !oel and no 2olloing consonant such as Dd hee- :ut: and those that had the !oels a and o. 6hose ith other !oels also lacked consonants and had the same attern as the e-stemsE Dag- :dri!e: Dok- :look: Dstaa- :stand: and Ddoo- :gi!e:.
I2 a and o had been normal !oels hy ere there no normal-shaed stems a- and o-F hy ere these to !oels also associated ith lack o2 consonantF I2 long !oels ere normal hy ere there no stems o2 the shae ee consonant - or consonant ee consonant -F  6he roosed solution *erdinand de "aussure roosed the e4istence o2 elements he called coeGcients sonantiques in >H an abstract term not committing himsel2 to any de3nite honetic 2orm. 6hese stood in the lace normally occuied by consonants and caused one or both o2 to changesE shi2ting the neighbouring [email protected] and lengthening it i2 they 2olloed. 6hen they disaeared lea!ing their mark on the altered !oels.
+ater the same year ,ermann <ller seeking to make a conne4ion beteen the Indo-%uroean and "emitic 2amilies introduced the name laryngeal suggesting that the hyothetical coeGcients ere ronounced like the "emitic laryngeals. 6he term strictly means ronounced ithin the laryn4 and is synonymous ith glottalE "emitic languages contain h and the glottal stop. But in Indo-%uroean the ;laryngeals; might ha!e been those or might ha!e been other guttural sounds such as haryngeals or !elars. e still ha!e no clear e!idence.
At least three laryngeals are usually ostulated. A more abstract notation is to use scha ith a subscrit number. An alternati!e much more common these days is to use some kind o2 H ith subscrit. 1 is e-coloured 2 is a-coloured and 3 is o-coloured. "o the si4 roots gi!en abo!e come 2rom earlier 2orms ith laryngealsE Ded- 2rom 1ed- Ddhee- 2rom dhe dhe1- Dag- 2rom 2eg- Dstaa- 2rom ste2- Dok- 2rom 3ek- Ddoo- 2rom de3-
"ometimes e!idence shos a laryngeal but the !oel colouring has been lost so e can:t tell hich one it asE this is annotated ithout subscrit as ,. 1roo2 in ,ittite  6he regularity o2 the ablaut grades described abo!e as the initial moti!ation 2or ostulating laryngeals but many other niggling e4cetions in other arts o2 the grammar and !ocabulary became simler to e4lain i2 laryngeals ere in!oked. %ach henomenon could hoe!er ha!e a di?erent e4lanation. 6here as no direct e!idence 2or 32ty years. But in >H 9er$y /uryJoic$ announced that ,ittite contained consonants in 0ust those ositions here laryngeals ere redicted. 6his had been o!erlooked hen ,ittite as 3rst decihered in >H>K.
to those redicted 2or the Indo-%uroean laryngeals. 6he e4act !alue o2 the ,ittite sounds is unclear. 6here as only one letter no transcribed h or h but it as sometimes ritten doubled as in pahhur  corresonding to &reek pyr   and %nglish fre. In some ,ittite consonants the use o2 doubling indicated a !oicing contrast such as p !ersus b but it is not knon hether this is true o2 h. 6hat is though the laryngeals ere 2ound e:re not sure ho many o2 them ,ittite reser!ed as distinct sounds or hat e4actly they ere.
It also aears to imly a 2ourth laryngeal because in some cases here an a- coloured laryngeal is ostulated there is no h in ,ittite though the !oel did become a. Other instances o2 2e do hoe!er sho u as ha.
"anskrit e!idence In "anskrit the 1roto-Indo-%uroean (1I%) !oels e and o both became a iing out the basic e!idence 2or [email protected] but laryngeals are con!incing as e4lanation o2 at least three disarate henomena restricted to the "anskrit branch. 6hey are the di?erence beteen set  and anit  [email protected] the e4cetions to Brugmann:s [email protected] and the e4istence o2 !oiceless asirated stos.
Set  and anit  are ancient Indian grammatical terms 2rom sa-i :ith i: and an-i :ithout i: re2erring to the in3niti!e. "ome are like bhavitum :to become: 2rom the root bhu and others are like kartum :to do: 2rom kr . 6hose ith i come 2rom roots e4tended by a laryngealE bheweH-. hen the unaccented !oel as reduced to $ero grade beteen consonants gi!ing DbhéwHtum the laryngeal 2ound itsel2 beteen consonants so turned into a !oel in order to remain ronounceable. In most I% languages this so-called scha indogermanicum became a but it is characteristic o2 "anskrit that it became i .
 6he resumed laryngeal also triggered !oel lengthening. ith the ast articile suG4 -tós the accent is remo!ed 2rom the stem and both stem !oels are reduced to $ero gi!ing DbhwHtós. In this osition the w then turns into a !oel Dbhu,tLs and then lengthening and loss o2 the laryngeal (as in the original ablaut attern laryngeals ere in!ented 2or) gi!e the actual "anskrit bhuutás.
In later (lassical) "anskrit the range o2 set roots as e4tended by analogy so not all set roots mark laryngeals. All languages undergo e4tensi!e loughing- o!er and early atterns are o2ten obscured.
Normally 1I% o became "anskrit a. Brugmann:s +a says that hen this haened in an oen syllable be2ore a resonant (a liquid or nasal) it as also lengthened. "o Dkekore :she Mhe made: regularly becomes cakaara. omarison ith &reek shos that the 3rst erson :I made: should ha!e been D kekora hich should ha!e also become cakaara but the actual 2orm is cakara. "omething re!ented Brugmann:s +a oerating. It might ha!e been an analogy ith some other :I: 2orm in order to kee the to ersons [email protected] but the unusual thing about the er2ect tense ending -a :I: is that hile the !oel a is common in 1I% stems it:s !ery rare in inections. 6his suggests it only occurred here created by a laryngeal. 6hen the 1I% 2orm Dkekor2e ould contain a closed syllable -kor - not oen -ko- so Brugmann doesn:t aly.
"o the "anskrit root stha- :stand: came 2rom ste,- and the ne consonant th as then generali$ed to all 2orms o2 the ord.
&reek and Armenian e!idence Armenian is a solitary branch o2 the Indo-%uroean 2amily markedly di?erent 2rom all others but in se!eral resects it and &reek share unusual 2eatures. "ome ords articularly in 2ront o2 n l r ha!e an e4tra (rothetic) !oel comared to other branches.
&reek Lnoma Armenian anun c2. %nglish name +atin nomen "anskrit naaman. &reek odos Armenian atamn c2. %nglish tooth +atin dens "anskrit dantah. &reek astPr Armenian astJ %nglish star +atin stella. &reek eletheros +atin liber :2ree:.
*rom the !oel reser!ed in &reek e can see hich laryngeal as originally thereE ,>leudh- :2ree: ,ster- :star: ,Qnom- :name:.
&reek and "anskrit share the augment an initial !oel e- (becoming a- in "anskrit) on some ast tenses. Armenian also has this though only on the third ersonal singular o2 monosyllables. 6hey also ha!e redulication in the er2ect tense. 6he luer2ect is 2ormed ith both augment then redulication. here there as a laryngeal this sometimes causes lengthening. "o ,>leudh- :2ree: gi!es eleeluutha :I loosened: 2rom e-,>le-,>leudh-,e. In a 2e cases the !oel-colouring e?ect o2 the laryngeal is also reser!ed.
 6he lengthening e?ect seems to e4lain the to &reek ords ikhthuus :3sh: and muus :mouse:. e can susect that there as a laryngeal here because the Armenian ords are 0ukn and mukn. 6his also shos that it:s not strictly true that the laryngeals disaeared 2rom all modern languages.
 6here are more direct sur!i!als in ArmenianE +atin anus = ,ittite hannas = Armenian han +atin a!us = ,ittite huhhas = Armenian ha +atin !entus = ,ittite huantsa = Armenian hogi
Other branches Albanian is another unique and distant branch o2 Indo-%uroean and also reser!es some actual descendants o2 the laryngeals in ords like hidhur :bitter: hidhR :nettle: hut :emty: and herdhe :testicle:.
"ome +atin er2ect tenses are 2ormed by redulication but others are 2ormed by lengthening the !oelE these may be in laces here laryngeals are redicted. "o edS :I eat: TdU :I ate: 2rom originally redulicated 1e-1d-.
%truscan is not an Indo-%uroean language but might be distantly related to the 2amily as a hole. 6he ord 2or :be2ore: is hant - hereas +atin has ante.
 6he attemt to link Indo-%uroean to other 2amilies called the Nostratic theory has a roblem ith laryngeals. Although Nostratic ould connect Indo- %uroean to "emitic the conne4ion is not !ery close e!en ithin Nostratic. All the other grous that ould belong somehere in the suer2amily - such as /art!elian 5ralic Altaic and #ra!idian - sho little or no e!idence o2 e!er ha!ing had laryngeals.
 6he Nostraticist Allen Bomhard rites that e can no state ith comlete con3dence the !alues o2 the laryngeals. 6his o2 course means e can:t do anything o2 the kind. 6hey could be almost anything.
One good idea is that 1 2 and 3 ere resecti!ely alatal !elar and rounded !elar 2ricati!es that is WX 4X and 4X. 6his 3ts the attern o2 stos k0 k kX that e already kno about and also makes them quite easy 2or us to ronounce. None o2 those akard haryngeals.
But 1 as more easily lost so erhas it as something eaker like a glottal sto. 4 i2 it e4isted could ha!e been hX. 2 and 3 might ha!e been haryngeal. 3 might ha!e been !oiced (because o2 the ,ittite riting)@ as it caused o-colouring it as !ery likely rounded (labiali$ed).
+.'. 1almer >HC 6he &reek +anguage *aber Y *aber in2red +ehmann >HHQ 6heoretical Bases o2 Indo-%uroean +inguistics 'outledge
&ender category in Indo-%uroean.
  Z >. Origin o2 gender in 1roto-Indo-%uroean.
It is ro!ed that it ould be rong to mi4 the categories o2 gender and se4 in 1roto-Indo-%uroean noun system. odern Indo-%uroean languages hich ha!e gender at all usually make these to categories the sameE hat is 2emale in se4 is 2emale in gender. hat has no se4 is neuter - 2or those languages hich use neuter like "la!ic and &erman.
1roto-Indo-%uroean shos a comletely di?erent system o2 gender. And though linguistic schools argue about the more likely structure o2 noun genders in the 1roto-language some 2acts can be stated 2or sure.
*irst 1roto-Indo-%uroean had no gender. At that time the language consisted not o2 morhological items like nouns !erbs and ad0ecti!es but 0ust o2 ords hich acted indeendently in the sentence. 6he main grammar means o2 the language as not the declension and con0ugation but the combination o2 ords and the ord order. Nouns lacked any endings case suG4es 2ormants o2 gender o2 number.
+ater hen the language acquired the ergati!e structure here all ords should be clearly distinguished beteen acti!e and inacti!e (or animate and inanimate) classes. ,ere on this stage nouns 3rst get the declension. ost scientists belie!e there ere to or three noun cases at that time in 1roto-Indo- %uroeanE ergati!e case hich denoted the sub0ect and indirect ob0ects absoluti!e case hich meant sub0ect and direct ob0ects and maybe geniti!e hich could e4ist in the stage o2 2orming. e must stress that only acti!e animate nouns could be declined and nouns denoting things did not ha!e cases at all.
art o2 seech as di!ided into to onesE nouns hich marked the sub0ect and ob0ect and the ad0ecti!e marking the attribute o2 a noun.
 6his di!ision as logicalE eole ere going to searate attributi!e and sub0ecti!e ords those hich determine and those hich state. Ad0ecti!es ne!ertheless could not comletely a!oid the inuence o2 nouns and since then they had to 2ollo the noun in case and number.
 6his as the time 2or the gender to aear. And here the oinions o2 leading orld linguists do not agree. "ome o2 them try to ro!e rather success2ully that there as to genders in %arly 1roto-Indo-%uroean and then one o2 them di!ided into to. Other argue there ere three genders originally. +et us see the arguments o2 each o2 the sides 0ust in order to seem ob0ecti!e.
 6he 3rst !ersion means the 2olloing. 6o genders hich aeared in the 1roto-Indo-%uroean language ere in!ented to searate acti!e and inacti!e nouns 2rom each other to di!ide nouns meaning animate ob0ects (eole sacred animals deities) 2rom simle inanimate things (trees ground eaons).  6he acti!e gender or acti!e class o2 nouns acquired the ending -s M -os in nominati!e singular and could be declined according to case and number. 6he lural number denoted se!eral animate nouns their real lurality. 6he inacti!e class !ice !ersa could not be declined its characteristic ending as -m M -om and e!en though it had lural number it did not mean lurality but 0ust collecti!eness. +ater rocesses o2 the language de!eloment generated a- stems o2 nouns stems in long i  and u. 6hese three kinds o2 noun stems sooner or later started to denote 2eminine nouns - no they ere equal to the se4.  6hat is ho the acti!e class as di!ided into masculine and 2eminine.
 6here are se!eral solid roo2s o2 such a oint o2 !ie. In most Indo-%uroean languages many noun stems include both masculine and 2eminine nounsE like short i -stems (+atin hostis masc ossis 2em). "uch nouns though di?erent in gender ha!e absolutely the same declension and only ad0ecti!es attributes ne4t to them can distinct their gender. %!en a-stems (+atin 2emina +ithuanian motina &reek gunh) made secially 2or 2eminine include many masculine nouns (+atin nauta oeta). "uch a situation o2 mi4ture cannot e4ist ith neuter nouns hich do not mi4 in declension ith masculine or 2eminine. hile masculine and 2eminine nouns in most o2 stems (e4cet a-) still use -s ending in all classical Indo-%uroean tongues neuter nouns ha!e -m. 6his !ery -m is alays reeated in accusati!e singular together ith nominati!e singularE this ne!er haens to other genders.
&reek and +atin being tyical Indo-%uroean languages sho one more interesting 2eature called ;to ending ad0ecti!es;. Ordinary ad0ecti!es use all three gendersE +atin bonus bona [email protected] but this haens only to ad0ecti!es o2 o- and a-stems hich cooerate and ith all other stems ad0ecti!es use only to 2ormsE the same 2or masculine and 2eminine and another 2or neuter. "uch ad0ecti!es as +atin 2ortis 2ortis 2orte are called to ending ad0ecti!es and also sho the main thesis o2 all ho state original genders o2 1roto-Indo- %uroeanE di?erences beteen masculine and 2eminine in Indo-%uroean are not as big as those beteen masculine-feminine and neuter.
some interesting archaic moments hich e cannot 2ound in other Indo- %uroean languages. Anatolian languages sho no feminine or masculine languages and e!en no a-stems and genders are two - e4actly 2or animate  and inanimate nouns. 6he animate gender used -s' ending (as:s:us: - good) and the other one either had -n (deri!ed 2rom Indo-%uroean -m) or no ending at all subsequently did not decline (as:s:u - good (neut.)). 6his makes us belie!e that such a system is the %arly Indo-%uroean oneE Anatolian languages ere the only grou to reser!e the -gender structure.
 6he third roo2 concerns the lural number. asculine and 2eminine nouns and ad0ecti!e in Indo-%uroean use the ending -es in nominati!e lural and -ns in accusati!e lural. All other cases also ha!e their inections. As 2or neuter ords their ending -a is used both in nominati!e and in accusati!e. 1lural neuter nouns denoted collecti!e unity in 1roto-Indo-%uroean like modern 'ussian nebesa ;skies; hich does not mean ;se!eral skies; but ;sky in a collecti!e meaning;. "uch nouns in the 1roto-language included many ords hich later ill be included into the 2eminine a-stems - their endings in nominati!e ere the same. *or e4amle +atin aqua (ater) is originally a collecti!e neuter noun in luralE ;aters;. In &reek ancient Indo-Iranian languages and in ,ittite the sub0ect in neuter lural 2orm alays use their redicate in singular. 6his is maybe the most imortant e!idence o2 the secial osition o2 neuter in 1roto-Indo-%uroeanE it as inacti!e.
Besides a-stems Indo-%uroean 2ormed the 2eminine gender dierent 2rom masculine ith one more tye o2 noun stemsE long i -stems. Ob!iously the suG4 -i - meant the ossession on archaic stages o2 the language ("anskrit rathah ;a chariot; rathih ;something belonging to a chariot;). +ater this meaning could go in to aysE it might begin to mean the possessive genitive case (remember -i  in +atin Venetic and eltic) and to 2orm the 2eminine gender i2 Indo-%uroeans looked at the oman as a ossession o2 the man. 6hat is ho long i -stems turned out to be all 2eminine.
"o 2rom that moment hen Anatolian languages already migrated to Asia inor hen a-stems and i -stems aeared and the oosition emerged beteen masculine and 2eminine nouns e can seak about three genders in Indo-%uroeanE masculine 2eminine neuter.
 6here are linguistic schools hich do not agree to the 2act that the 1roto- language used to genders and not three. 6hey say that Anatolian 0ust united masculine and neuter 2or its a-stems honetically coincided ith masculine o- stems so the genders coincided as ell. Other e4lain this uni3cation by the substratum inuence. But anyay the -gender !ersion seems much better ro!en.
Z . &enders in ancient and modern Indo-%uroean languages.
hen the 1roto-language disaeared trans2orming into di?erent grous the gender system chose its on ay in each o2 them. But the general trend in e!ery Indo-%uroean language as quite clearE the number o2 genders as going to reduce.
classical neuter endings in -n [ D-m. In &reek neuter lural sub0ects ha!e usually a singular redicateE loia lei (shis mo!e). 6he Ne &reek language also shos three genders and their oosition is strengthened by the e4tensi!e use o2 articles also declined in three genders.
Italic can be called classical in this meaning as ell. +atin shos no sign o2 reduction o2 genders and its neuter lays an imortant role in the language.  6he reduction o2 some 3nal consonants in 5mbrian inuenced the so-called 1oular +atin hich as quickly mo!ing toards the analytism in morhology lost many endings and so many gender 2orms coincided ith each other hich could not but lead ne 'omance languages in their ma0ority to the -gender oosition ith the loss o2 neuter. In many modern 'omance tongues the 2unction o2 di?erentiating genders assed 2rom the inection to the article usageE *rench has no other signs o2 genders but un une le la some reositional 2orms like du - de and ad0ecti!e endings gros - grosse. In some languages hoe!er the rocess o2 secondary morhologisation o2 genders is going on noadaysE "anish generated ne endings 2or masculine and 2eminineE hermano - hermana cabron - cabra. 6his interesting 2eature seems to make us think that the gender de!eloment history goes the same ay as the case system de!eloment.
&ermanic languages are called the most analytic among all modern Indo- %uroean tongues. hile all ancient !arieties o2 &ermanic (&othic Old Norse Old %nglish) used three cases the modern languages reduced their number. %nglish and A2rikaans remo!ed genders at all 2rom their morhologyE %nglish reser!ed them only as a ;hidden category; hich can be seen in ersonal ronouns he she it (2or e4amle shis are alays she). &erman uses both some in2ections and 3rst o2 all the article de3nite and inde3nite (der - die - das ein - eine). An interesting thing haened in "candina!ian languagesE they lost the oosition beteen masculine and 2eminine and returned to the ancient system o2 to noun classes 2or animate - inanimate nouns. 6his ro!es once more that 2eminine and masculine in 2act are similar in the language.
Iranian languages used to ha!e all three genders in ancient tongues (A!estan Old 1ersian) but under the inuence o2 analytic trend the system as destroyed or reduced and many modern Iranian languages do not ha!e genders at all. It can be also connected ith the adstratum and substratum languages hich inuenced Indo-%uroean structural 2eatures. &enders are comletely lost also in Armenian.
Baltic linguistics shos that Old 1russian had neuter hich as not about to disaear at all. But +ithuanian lost it someho not !ery long ago. "ome relics take lace hoe!er in ad0ecti!es and in ronouns but in 2act no +ithuanian knos only 2eminine and masculine (see ,istorical &rammar o2 +ithuanian).
In 1olish e!en 2urther comlication o2 gender structure haenedE masculine has animate and inanimate 2orms and animate has in its turn ersonal and imersonal 2orms in lural. "oE
dom (nom. sg. inanimate) dom (acc. sg.) ;a house; ies (nom. sg. animate) sa (acc. sg.) sy (nom. l.) sy (acc.l.) ;a dog; chlo (nom. sg. animate ersonal) chloa (acc. sg.) chloy (nom. l.) chloo (acc. l.) ;a easant;
According to these rocesses hich indeendently mo!e on in di?erent grous o2 the Indo-%uroean 2amily e can make a conclusion that genders do not beha!e e4actly the ay noun cases do i.e. the reduction rocess is sometimes substituted by the comle4 changes ("la!ic "anish). But in general e can state that genders are noadays less synthetic and less sread than they used to be in the 1roto-Indo-%uroean language.
Root lemma! abhro- 
(D2abhro-) English meaning! strong mighty "ote! Root lemma! abhro- (D2abhro-)! ] strong mighty : deri!ed 2rom Root lemma! ig ! 2orce e4tended in -r - 2ormant (see gr. ^_` ]tender 2ine luscious:) #aterial!  (^_` ]tender 2ine luscious:) iddle Irish 1re34 abor cymr. a!r ] !ery much :@ &othic abrs ] get strong !iolent : ad!. abraba ] !ery much : biabr"an ] be2ore ere astonished beside onesel2 : Old Icelandic 1re34 a!ar ] !ery much :@ Illyrian VN _`f thrak. 1N _`-.
  ,ere maybe &othic aba (n- stem) ] husband:.
 6he root abhro- ! :strong mighty: E Root lemma! ab(n) ! (ae aquatic demon) E Root lemma! ab- ! (ater ri!er) E Root lemma! (enebh-2)E nebh- embh- m bh- ! (et [email protected] [email protected] clouds) Old Indic abhrá m. (Dm# bhros) A!estan awra n. References! 1. I > *eist > b 2. KH a. . "chul$e /8. K Q>> = /l. "chr. QH. $ee also! abh %age&s'! 
  ,ere at most Old hurch "la!ic ab%"e ] straight aay directly : but uncertainly Old Indic ahn&ya ] directly straight aay instantly seedily : (rather to áhar  áhan ]day : . ).
References! 1. I > *eist > b 2. KH a. . "chul$e /8. K Q>> = /l. "chr. QH. $ee also! abhro %age&s'! 
Root lemma! ab(n) (D2ab-) English meaning! ae Dater demon "ote! Root lemma! ab(n) (D2ab-)! ] ae Dater demon : deri!ed 2rom Root lemma! abh- (D2abh-)! ] quick abrut : [ Root lemma! abhro- (D2abhro-)! ] strong mighty : [ root m bh-(ro-)E [ ith l -2ormant (nebhel)E [ Root lemma! (enebh-2)E nebh- embh- m bh- ! ] et [email protected] [email protected] clouds :. "ote! (eltic neologism). 6he animal introduced by tra!eling merchants can ha!e been named by the elts ith the name o2 her aquatic demon (see abo!e ab-). #aterial! ,es. _`j p p`vfwx is maybe __j (Akk. 1l.) to read and still be2ore the consonatic mutation in &ermanic [email protected] hence in. api m. ] monkey gate : Old "a4on apo Old ,igh &erman a'o m. a'a a(n  2. Old %nglish apa m. ]monkey: Old $ech opice comes Old 'ussian opica 2rom the &ermanic References! 1. I K> 2. $ee also! comare ab]ater: and "chrader 'ealle4. ,oos 'ealle4. s. !. ae. %age&s'! -Q
Root lemma! ab-  English meaning! ater ri!er "ote! Root lemma! ab- ! ] ater ri!er : deri!ed 2rom Root lemma! ab(n)  (D2ab-)! ] ae Dater demon : [ Root lemma! abh- (D2abh-)! ] quick abrut : [ Root lemma! abhro- (D2abhro-)! ] strong mighty : [ root m bh- (ro-)E [ ith l -2ormant (nebhel)E [ Root lemma! (enebh-2)E nebh- embh- m bh- ! ] et [email protected] [email protected] clouds :. #aterial! +atin amnis 2. late m. c ()abnis)@ Old Irish ab ()aba) &en. abae  ]ri!er: besides abann (common eltic -ns- z -nn-) cymr. a!on orn. bret. auon gall. brit. *lN *bona deri!ed cymr. a!anc ] bea!er ater demon dar2 : to iddle Irish abac ()abankos) ] bea!er dar2 : "iss -*rench  ava+  ]asture: ()abanko)@ +at!ian *lN *bava.
  6he est &erman *lN in apa odern ,igh &ermana'a robably go back artly to usually lost est &ermanic  )ap(Indo &ermanic )ab) artly in Venetic-Illyrian ap  (Indo &ermanic )ap).
References! 1. I {\ 2. ,. I {C *eist >Ha KHa &I1at"'. II >Q{. $ee also! comare also &p2 ]ater ri!er: and ab,(n) ]ae:. %age&s'! >
 6ocharian AB &ti ] grass : B atiyo (2.l.) ]grass: (Adams H)X (di?erently 1edersen  6ocharian \{>). about gr. wx` ] an ear o2 corn : see belo andh. 1erhas Armenian! hat  ]grain: Hittite! hattar  n. :cereal: NoteE It seems Root lemma! a!es-" a!os- ! ]sort o2 cereal: e!ol!ed 2rom an older root )he#h- ] a kind o2 grain :. 6his root as suG4ed ith common ska  2ormant in &ermanic branch (ermanic! Datiska hile in Anatolian branch the root as suG4ed ith common 1I% tar  2ormant. 6he old laryngeal (centum a e E satem s ) as lost e4cet in ,ittite and Armenian learly &ermanic tongues borroed the cognate 2rom a reduced +atin (D hattar) adris (ermanic! Datiska.
*inally $ero grade in alb. ()ad,-ris) )dris dri05 ]thorny lant: ()dris) drith5  :grain: here the +atin -is ending has been solidi3ed.  6he surrise is the 6h d 2ound only in A!estan - Illyrian - Baltic languages. References! 1. I {K *eist \> a anders ,. I >{. %age&s'! Q
Root lemma! a!-$ (Dhed-) English meaning! to by at #aterial! 1hrygian j|-|jp ] he does :@ maked. |-|jf }~• ("chy$er &r. &r. I \H)@ +atin ad ] to ith in : re!erb and reosition m. Akk. also &en. at7ue ac ] and in addition and also and : ()[email protected] not at  € [email protected] also 5mbrian ap ] in hich lace in hat lace here hen a2ter since although : chronologically ith e4tended 8  in ape) 5mbrian a9 re!erb ar      ostosition m. Akk. Oscan adp:d ] as 2ar as : otherise ith s- e4tension Oscan a0  ] to toard : reosition m. Akk [email protected] Old Irish ad re!erb (e.g. ad ;l&dur   ]call uon aeal to :) cymr. add gall. ad re34 (e.g. N *diant<E cymr. addiant  ]longing: *dm&rusE Old Irish már   ]large :)@ cymr. = ith !oel  a; ]ith: (ad € 6he Old Indic ha not = +atin at7ue :and as ell as together ith:)@ &ermanic )at  re!erb and reosition mostly ith ]dati!e: = +ok. rare m. Akk. (&othic est &ermanic 2rom the time Old %nglish also 2rom the lace) Old Icelandic also ith &en.E &othic at  ] to by : Old Icelandic at  ] to by against a2ter : Old %nglish >t  Old "a4on at  Old ,igh &erman a0  ] to by in :.
$ero gradeE !ed. tsárati ] crees crees u : Old ,igh &erman 0a;?n (E &othic )a;an ]2ear:) Old ,igh &erman 0ou;en iddle ,igh &erman 0,u;en Old "a4on t,;ian comared ith &othic atau;"an ] ith raised u eyes oint sho :.
References! 1.I {{ 2. ,.I >> 2. $ee also! 1erhas to ad2. %age&s'! Q
suitable use2ul : as n. ] goodness suitability : = Old ,igh &erman  0il ] urose : reosition Old %nglish Old Icelandic til ] to 2or :.
References! %. I > #e!oto ‚l. 1edersen {. %age&s'! Q
Root lemma! a!(u)-" a!-ro- (Dhe#hero) English meaning! ater current NoteE *rom Root lemma! ang(h)i- ! ]snake orm: deri!ed Root lemma! ak- (more roerly %k)E k-  ! ]ater ri!er:@ Root lemma! e#hero- ! ]lake inner sea:@ Root lemma!  a!(u)-" a!-ro- ! ]ater current:E Illyrian 1annonian VN ƒ„p`f…p common alb.- Illyrian-Baltic -#h- & -!-" --X. *rom Root lemma! ak- ]ater ri!er: nasali$ed in [email protected] (suG4ed in er or ) deri!ed Root lemma! au (e)-" aue!-" auer- ! ]to o to [email protected] ater etc.: #aterial! A!estan aAu ] ater run brook canal : Venetic-Illyrian *lN *d.d/ua  (2or 1o) )*[email protected] *ttel (to #anube in Ba!aria) Bons o! *dula ] "t. &otthard : (robably named a2ter the ri!ers streaming there) ober<sterr. *lN  )*draz 
 *ttersee *tter;au *lN *drana z der  (,essen) maybe also 1N *dria in Venetien (a2terards mare *driaticum) si$il. *lN |`j and Venetic-Illyrian name o2 Oder ƒ†f-j|‡[email protected] 2urther +at!ian *lN *dula. NoteE  6he name o2 the rimordial hill in %gytian mythology the 3rst mountain that raised 2rom the ocean. 6he mountain god as borroed by ,itties ho called the dreaming god 5elluri. &reeks recei!ed Atlas 2rom ,ittites. Atlas ]Dmountain robably named a2ter the ri!ers streaming there :E j -j m. ]Atlas: (Od. ,es. ,dt. A. etc.) name o2 a &od ho carries the columns o2 the [email protected] originally robably name o2 Arcadian mountains hich ere sread then by the eic in general and esecially (by Ionic sea2arersF) as trans2erred to the Atlas ountains in est A2rica see "olmsen ort2orsch. {@ about Atlas as a ersoni3cation o2 the orld a4is 6iˆche us. ,el!. \K?. Berber ádr&r  ] mountain :. Derivatives! O2 it :j• 2. (,es. etc.) name o2 a mythical island according to Brandenstein Atlantis (ien >HK> = Arb. Inst. "rach. Q) = [email protected] 2urther :jf (%. 1l. Arist. etc.) and :pf (/ritias). References! Vasmer 8sl1h. >>{ 2. 1okorny 5rill. { C HQ >CH >{. %age&s'! {
Root lemma! agh-(lo-)  English meaning! disgusting NoteE Root lemma! agh-(lo-) ! ]disgusting: deri!ed 2rom an e4tended Root lemma! agos- ! ] 2ault sin: roduced. #aterial! &othic a;ls ]orobrious ignominious: a;liCa a;l, ] hardshi : us a;l"an ] ress : Old %nglish e;.e/le ] o?ensi!e unieldy un2ortunate : e;lan  add ] ain : (engl. ail ] [email protected] indisosed his :) e;lian ] to be 2elt ain2ully : iddle +o &erman e;elen ] cause grie2 : &othic a;lus Ad!. a;luba ] |‡„ diGcult :@ also (ith u$$ling suG4) &othic  a;laitei 2. i n. ] licentiousness anton !iolence insolence se4ual o?ense : Old ,igh &erman   a;alei0i 2.i n. ] [email protected] $eal : a;alei0o Old "a4on a;l?to a;al?to Ad!. ] sedulous keen :.
  ,ere maybe to iddle Irish &lad n. ]ound: ()a;loton) mcymr. aele.u/  ]ain2ul: aeleu m. ]ain: ()a;[email protected]).
References! 1. I {> *eist >K a "echt #ekl. >Q\ +oth '. Q K\. %age&s'! 
Root lemma! aghl(u)- (Dhe;hel) English meaning! rainy eather #aterial! &r. ‰‡Š ] 2og darkness : aybe alb. a;ull ]bad !ision: agu ] dan : Old 1russian a;lo n. ]rain: (u- stem) Armenian Dal"- in aF"aF" aF"amuF"kh  ]darkness: (eillet "+. >C H). References! 1. I {>. comare 1etersen Aryan and Armenian "tud. >\. %age&s'! 
Root lemma! agh- (Dhe;h-) English meaning! to 2ear #aterial! &r. ‰ n. ] 2ear ain grie2 : ‰~jf ‰~jf ] grie!ing sorroing mourning : (Aor. ‹j‰p Œj‰~ 1er2. ‰~jf) ‰p‡ ‰ ] mourning groaning : j‰• ]sadden:@ here robably ‰w ] load grie2 : (D ‰) thereo2 ‰wp„wjf ] to be loaded be deressed :. aybe nasali$ed alb. (Da;hos) ankth ]2ear: common alb. s thX.
  Old %nglish e;e m. ]2ear: e;isi;rima gl. ] ghost sectre e!il sirit : n. es- stem Da;i0  = gr. ‰ ]get a 2right:@
NoteE common gr. 6h G
comare Old ,igh &erman e;isl8h : dread2ul : e;is,n ] get a 2right : and to o  and en stems e4tended &othic a;is n. ] 2ear an4iety 2right : Old ,igh &erman  a;iso e;iso m. e;isa 2. ] 2ear 2right 3gure : Old %nglish e;esa m. ] 2ear :@ Old Norse a;i m. (-en- stem) :*ear: Old ,igh &erman e;8 @ iddle ,igh &erman e;e  2. ] 2ear 2right unishment :@ &othic -a;an in un-a;ands ] are not a2raid : a! a;"an ] 2righten: usa;"an ] 2righten somebody : ] in-a;"an ] snub somebody :@ reterit resent &othic ,; .,;um/ ] 2ears me : ni ,;s ] 2ear nothing : (old short !ocal sub0uncti!e D,;i0 ) Old Norse ,ask  ] be a2raid :@ &othic ,;"an ] snub somebody : = Old Norse >;"a ]get a 2right:@ Old Norse ,;n 2. ] 2right : ,tti m. ] 2ear : Old %nglish ,;a 2. ] 2right :.
  Old Irish ada;ora;ur  ] 2ear : (because o2 the ablaut equality ith &othic ,;  suoses Brugmann &rdr. II Q {{ origins 2rom older 1er2.) !erbal noun  &i;thiunder 
References! 1. I {C *eist >{ QC. $ee also! hereuon belongs robably alsoE a;h.lo/ %age&s'! -
Root lemma! agos- (Dhege-) English meaning! 2ault sin Dblood guilt #aterial! Old Indic & ;as- n. ]o?ence in0ury sin 2ault: change by ablaut ith gr. ] hea!y guilt blood guilt :@ Old Indic án&;as gr. jx ] innocent guiltless : @ x ‘jx ] curses : f ~fj`.
References! 1. I Q. %age&s'! 
Root lemma! agro- (egro-) (Dekr3uo) English meaning! to 3rst beginning #aterial! Old Indic á;ra n. ]oint 2oremost oint or art ti 2ront :  a;r?  (+ok.) ]at the to in 2ront ahead o2 : also timeise ]in the beginning 3rst:   a;rimá ]3rst receding 2oremost : A!estan  aDra ]3rst uermost a2ter time sace etc.: n. ][email protected] the uermost oint:@ +at!ian a;rs (Ad0.) ]early:  a;ri Ad!. ]early early on: a;rums ]the early morning:.
  hether here +atin N *;rippa 2rom )a;rip.e/d ] breech birth (one ho causes great ain at his birth : . "chul$e /8. Q >> in >> doubting +atin %ig. QCKF
  I2 Old Indic á;ra on )o;ro or )e;ro retrograde one could comare ,ittite J kur  J;ur   :cli? summit rock crag :.
aybe *;rianes Illyrian 6N *;ron ]Illyrian king:. References! 1. I Q 2. 1edersen ,ittite >Q. %age&s'! -H
Root lemma! agu (e)s*  aks*   English meaning! a4e #aterial! &othic a7i0i Old Norse KL  Old %nglish acus >L  Old "a4on acus accus Old ,igh &erman achhus accus aches odern ,igh &erman *Lt   (&ermanic 2orms )a7wi0i and )akusi ha!e maybe deri!ed according to 8uit$a &&. H 2rom a gradating Da;[email protected]  E )a;[email protected]& s) gr. ’“ ] a4 hatchet : NoteE common gr. 6h  “ +atin ascia ] a4 o2 the carenters : (2rom )acsi& like viscusM ’“ vespa 2rom  )veps&). aybe alb. (Dasca) ashka ]sha!ings ood slinter: ()viscus) vishk fshk  ]make thin ither:. References! 1. I QH ,. I > *eist K{ b "echt #ekl. >KC "chy$er &r. &r. I {\K{. %age&s'! H
Root lemma! a#h-  English meaning! lough animal #aterial! Old Indic ah8  ]co: A!estan a08  2. Ad0. ]regnant: (2rom cos and mares) iddle Irish a; (s- stem) m. 2. ] bo!ine animal co : a; allaid :deer: (actually ] ild o4 :) ál ] brood thro : (Da;lo-) cymr. ael ds. mcymr. aelaw ] abundance 2ertility : eilion .)a;liones/ ] 2allo deer horses :@ here ith e- !ocalism Armenian e0n ]bo!ine animal:F References! 1. I Q +oth '. Q KK. %age&s'! 
#aterial! a#E Old Indic á"ati ]dri!e: a"á m. ]a dro!e [email protected] a dri!er:@ &"N m.M2. ]running match combat: A!estan a0aiti ] dri!e lead aay : Armenian acem ] lead bring :@ aybe alb. &eg (D) a;o ]leader chie2:@
gr. :lead: (Aor. Aor. ”j ”“j are ne) +atin a;, ] to set in motion dri!e lead negotiate : (12. ?; 8  ith ablaut inno!ation) Oscan Imer.  actud = 5mbrian aitu ] o set in !iolent motion dri!e onard mo!e imel urge : Oscan acum ] dri!e urge : Old Irish adai; ()a;et ) ] to dri!e bring or take a erson or thing to a lace o2 cattle : acymr.  a;it  he;it  more recently 5yt .)a;8ti/ besides the strong inection in cymr. corn. bret.   a ()a;et ) ]goes:@ t - 1reterit Old Irish rodaacht  ] dri!en aay : cymr. aeth ()a;t ) ]to ut in motion: etc. see 1edersen /&. II {K> 2olloing Old Irish &in ] acti!ity lay : (2rom )a;nis) gallo- rom. )anda;nis  ] big ste : *rench andain ] sath scythe slash : Old *rench ]ide ste: Old Norse aka ]dri!ing: (1reterit ,k  like Old Indic &ram. &"a)@ Old %nglish ac ]hoe!er but yet: (<rtl. ]go: like +atin a;e)@ 6ocharian B ak AB  &k ]tra!el lead:@ R
  to articileE +atin &ctus : ut in motion mo!ed dri!en tended conducted: )amb .i/aktos actually ] sent around (E Old Irish  immai;) messenger ser!ant : in gall. (-+atin) ambactus ] !assal sla!e : cymr. amaeth ] ser!us arans : (2rom eltic deri!es &othic andbahts Old ,igh &erman ambaht  ] ser!ant : 2rom hich the kinshi ith odern ,igh &erman *mt ).
  As Indo &ermanic Instrumental noun intr& here Old Indic aOPQr& ]goad to dri!e the li!estock : A!estan aRtr& ] hi scourge :.
aybe )o*harian! B &k  n. ]$eal: (Adams QK) AB &k ]lead guide dri!e: (Q\).
  lengthened grade 2ormationsE Old Indic &"N m. 2. ]race 3ght : iddle Irish  &; (&en. &;a u- stem) ]3ght: &;a &i;e ]leaders: (c2 also gall. 1N *;om&rus = Old Irish á;mar  ]arlike:@ Tom&;ius) +atin only in comoundsE amb&;?s around ] a roundabout ay inding. ,ence in seech etc. either circumlocution or obscurity : (conser!ati!e stem like Old Indic á"? :to lead: = +atin a;8  In2. 1ass. and like Old Indic a" in pr#tan&  "  ] in the 3ght ulling : hoe!er ith stretch in the comosition) ind&;?s and ind&;oinis ] surrounding and dri!ing o2 game : co&;ulum ] a means o2 coagulation a coagulum or coagulator (the curdled milk in the stomach o2 a sucking animal the stomach itsel2 etc.) rennet or [email protected] the curdled [email protected] that hich holds or binds together a bond tie : Old Indic sam&"a ]meeting society: gr. ]leading leadingly : x ]guidance management 2reight: ,es. –jj ]sokes: „`j- (see belo). about #oric — (Old Indic &"am) ]I lead: see ne!ertheless "chy$er &r. &r. I \K{ {.
  o- stemE !ed. a"á U ] acti!ity [email protected] dri!er : gr. ] leader military leader : „`j-jŠ Attic Ionian „`j- :military leader: ‰jŠ (originally #oric) ] leader : +atin pr,di;o i;ere e;i actum ]to dri!e [email protected] to send aste: pr,di;us ]ro2use [email protected] rich abounding in. Ad!. rodige : (2rom
 pr,di;ere) abi;a ] lant hich has the oer o2 roducing [email protected] ground- ine : (] close to miscarriage : 2rom abi;ere = v Old Indic apaá"ati ] to dri!e aay dri!e o? :).
  io- stemE Irish ai;e ]race: Old Indic in pr#tan&"yam ]cometition:.
] a dri!ing mo!ement or a mass in (orderly) mo!ement a stream band [email protected] es. milit. an army on the march : (to neologism a;, 2or )ammen) eL&men ] a [email protected] a throng crod shoal. () the tongue o2 a [email protected] testing consideration :@ then ] to check to [email protected] to consider : (2rom )a;smen)  ammentum ()a;mentom) ] in loo 2orm - ossibly in the middle o2 the sear - 34ed ith thro stras :@ maybe ("ch. &r. &r. I {H >C) ith o graduation gr. ˜~ ] 3eld 2urro road o2 hea!enly [email protected] sath by moing :.
  lo- stemE Old Indic a"irá  ] quick nimble : (hoe!er +atin a;ilis ] e4ible nimble : is a neologism)@ gr. ] herd crod : +atin a;olum ] sheherd:s stick :.
  &r. ™ ] race cometition :@ fj :street: (art. 1er2.) 2rom hich about neer Dpfj +atin a;?a : a gangay in a shi:@ lak. retan štol. ] leads brings : e. Ionian fŠ~pjf fŠ ds. (E and like ›`fŠ- toards ˜`--~f and œ`-~ also 2rom an 8- ending root [email protected] c2 "chy$er &r. &r. I \H{ \H\). about p~™ see "chy$er &r. &r. I K and under s&;.
  +atin r?meL  r?mi;&re r?mi;ium l8ti;&re ] a roer oarsman : and other !erbs in -.i/;&re. - 1resumably +atin indi;it?s ] the local di!inities and heroes : (indi;it&re ] a di!inity call : indi;it&menta :in!ocation 2ormulae:) as )end.o/ a;et E the indigenous nati!e :.
2ormation de!eloment to :to eigh: (2rom ] bring in oscillation :) in +atin  eLa;ium ] a eighing [email protected] a balance : eLi;ere eL  € a;oX :to dri!e out ush 2orth thrust out take out e4elE -- 6o eigh try ro!e measure e4amine ad0ust estimate consider:E among other things ] eigh measure : eL&ctus ] recise accurate e4act : eLi;uus ] strict e4act scanty small little etty short oor mean inadequate inconsiderable altry : eL8lis ()eLa; slis) ] strict narro thin slender lank small meagre oor :  eL&men (see abo!e) a;8na ] the oening in the uer art o2 a balance in hich the tongue mo!es : (2ormation as 2or e4amle co7u8na) gr. pf also ]eigh: (ith Akk. o2 the eight) “f ]eighing as much o2 like !alue orth as much as: (2rom Df on the grounds o2 )a;tis ]eight: actuallyE) ] 2rom suitable eight : hence ] orth solemnly : “f :orth 0ust as much as equally:.
  still c2 ,. I H >C { about acnua &ctus 7uadr&tus ] a 3eld measure o2 >C 2eet in the square : and act<tum :straight aay immediately 2orthith :  a;&s, ]2ootman dri!er hostler : a;, ,nis ]o2 the riests killing the sacri3cial animal: (2rom a;ere in meaning ] sacri3ce:) a;,nium ] a !ictim beast 2or sacri3ce : belo likeise
,ere maybe gall. eLacum ] the herb centaury : i2 rescribed 2or )eLa;um (=  )eLa;o-] ure-cra!ing :). But better to )ak   V  ] shar : see there.
  *urther belong hereE
  a#es-+ ak   + s . . . ] (2ulcrum i!otE) a4is - shoulder :E
  Old Indic ákOPa- ] a4is: gr. “ ds. ~-j“j ]carriage agon: &l. > >@ /8. {C > 2.)@
NoteE common gr. 6h  “
in. YLull (2rom 1roto &erman )ahsula0 ) :a4is:@ iddle Irish ais :a4is: (Daksi-l& in cymr. echel 2. :a4is: bret. ahel).
 E +atin aLilla] ala] ascilla] ascella E Italian ascella E "anish aLial E *rench aisselle E alabrese mascidda] sciddra] titiddra] titilla E Albanian &eg s7etlla 6osc s7etull ] armit :. common alabrese ll dd E "ardinian ll dd.
a#-r ] rush hunt : a#-ro-s ] dri!ing rushing :E
  Old Indic in ;has?-a"ra- ] to dri!e consuming e4citing aetite : A!estan (vehrk^m) a0r,daiA8m ] doing the hunt outgoing on rey (she-ol2) :@ gr. `jŠ Ionian ` ] hunt catch : vj` ] catching e!erything catching : `p`j ] meat tongs : v``j ] tongs : v|`j ] rostration enuection : Ÿpj` originally name o2 a ] demon hich as a quick-temered 2e!er sei$es the limbs : (F) `p‡ ] hunter : `p‡ ] catch :@ but ` ] take : according to "chy$er &r. &r. I >  2rom D^-`[email protected] Irish &r  n. ] de2eat : (Da;ron) ] battle 3ght : ()a;r&) actually ] rush : acorn. hair  ] destruction in0ury mischie2 harm mis2ortune disaster loss detriment calamity : abret. airou 1I. ] an o!erthro destruction ruin de2eat slaughter massacre butchery carnage : gall. VN _era;ri ] the immense combatants :.
aybe Illyrian *;ron 1N.
  a#-ro-s ] 3eld cam : (to )a;, as herd to dri!e ie also originally ] lace here the cattle is being dri!en asture :).
  Old Indic á"ra- ]sur2ace cam 3elds : (ithout resect on agriculture) gr. ` ] 3eld land : (in contrast to ton) +atin 5mbrian a;er  ]3eld: &othic (etc.) akrs Old ,igh &erman ackar  ahhar  odern ,igh &erman *cker  ( *cker   and Old %nglish >cer  also a certain land measure ] so much a bottom late can o4en lo during one day :) Armenian art  :3eld: (ith u$$ling t  about  )at;r )atr see 1edersen /8. QH [email protected] thereo2 artak :s ] out : re34 artaE  2rom:).
  Old Indic a"rNya- ] located in the lain : = gr. `f ] on the 3eld outside groing or li!ing ildly :@ `p` ] ildly li!ing : +atin a;restis ] a countryman easant rustic rural crude :. (about &othic  akran &erman  ckern ] beechnut : hoe!er see belo ),; ]gro:.)
aybe alb. e;5r  ]ild rural crude: Illyrian 6N *;rianes.
]lamb: common alb. ;h ;l ;" E lith. ;h d0X.
%nglish lamb
+atin agnus z Italian agnello *rench agneau Bolognese agnˆl Bresciano agnil
(desonari$ed ((e)knedd Albanian &eg kin4h 6osc qeng0
alabrese gneddu @ agnellu @ agneddu @ agniellu atalan anyell @ 4ai +adin agnel orsican agnellu *errarese
agnˆl *urlan agnel &alician a¡o &reek j`¢ &riko "alentino arn +ithuanian
"lo!ak 0ahµa "lo!enian 0°gn0e "omali nayl "ahili mana kondoo "edish lamm "iss &erman +šmmli  6agalog kordero  6hai    6igrinya siem¶  6raditional hinese    6riestino agnel  6urkish ku$u  6urkmen ·¸¹º» 5krainian ¼§½¼ 5rdu ¾¿ÀÁ Valencian corder Venetian agnelo Viestano a0n: allon agnea elsh oen olo2 kharre 8enei$e bÃ
gr. ~ m. 2. ~x 2. ]lamb:@ &r. ()a;`nos abnos) ~ deri!ed 2rom an earlier Dabnos ]lamb: common gr. k` p ;` b later b mb m common Illyrian -gr.X +atin a;nus 8  2em.a ]lamb: (a;n8le ]shee stable: lacking suG4 aGnity ith Old hurch "la!ic "a;nilo ] lace here the shee lamb : a deri!ati!e o2 the !erb "a;niti ]to lamb:)@ common "la!ic old laryngeal "X Old Irish <an cymr. oen acorn. oin bret. oan ]lamb: (1roto eltic )o;nos ith -;n- ould ha!e deri!ed 2rom );`hn not);`n in site o2 1edersen /&. I >CH- [email protected] o  robably inuence 2rom )[email protected] is ]shee:)@ Old %nglish ?anian engl. to yean ]to lamb: #utch oonen ds. (2rom )aun,n 2rom Dauna- = Indo &ermanic )a;`hno)@ Old hurch "la!ic ."/a;ne  ]lamb: (ith 2ormants -et - broadened around oular names o2 young animals) ."/a;n%c% ]lambkins: contain 2ull gradation. Or is laced Indo &ermanic D,;`.h/no- E to D;`.h/no-F
  6hrough the &ermanic and eltic resumed !oiced-asirated also ould underlie the basis o2 +atin and "la!ic 2orms so that gr. ~ (at 3rst 2rom D_) remains the only deendable indication in !oiced-nonasirated ;`. I2 5mbrian habina.!/ ] o2 a lamb : could be e4lained 2rom intersection 2rom  Dh?d8no- = +atin haed8nus ]o2 a kid: and )abn8no  +atin a;ninus ]o2 a [email protected] 2. as subst. lamb:s esh: hoe!er it ould oint 5mbrian  b to !oiced- nonasirated. But maybe it has become ;`h in Oscan-5mbrian to b.
NoteE  6he old laryngeal in centum languages a e E "la!ic " E Albanian k- E Italic h.
  +atin avillus ]lambkin: because o2 the suG4 2ormation not to  ovis but 2rom  )a;`hnelos.
common +atin - Italic ;w vX +atin avillus (Dabillus) ]lambkin: E 'umanian (Da;`enus) a;eamiu ]lamb:.
References! 1. I QH ,. I. Q. %age&s'! H
Root lemma! ai-dh-" i-dh-" nasali$ed i-n-dh- (Da,i-dh-) English meaning! to burn NoteE ommon Illyrian -#h- & -!h- #aterial! Old Indic inddh ] inamed is aroused : (ass. idhyáte 1er2. 8dh art. 1er2. 1ass iddhá) indhanam ] lighting :.
  &r. jÄw ] lights burns : (j’w~p) jÄw jÅwÆ ] igneous sarkling : ’wj•p„wjf wp`~j•p„wjf ,es. hylleisch j’|Ç„„j jÄw„j ] to light u kindle :@ changing by ablaut j-fwx ,es. :ra!enously: (. "chul$e /8. H \H = /l. "chr. QH). common gr.- Illyrian ks ss
aybe alb. (D|Ç„„j) nde0  ] to light u kindle :.
  o-&radeEgr. jÅw m. ]3re: (j’w ]burntly:) = Old Indic ?dha Èm. ]*ireood: = Old %nglish &d Old ,igh &erman iddle ,igh &erman eit  m. ] glo yre :E $ero grade robably Noregian "edish id ] leuciscus idus : (a bright car kind) c2 odern ,igh &erman dial. aitel ] leuciscus cehalus: as the ] shining :@ besides u- stem Daidhu- in gall. VN *edui Old Irish áed ]3re: also as [email protected] +atin  aed?s ] a delling o2 the gods a sanctuary a temle : ursrÉngl. ] the domestic sto!e : also aedis = maked. |f ‘„‰`j Hes
  *rom the !erbal ad0ecti!e in to deri!ed robably +atin aest&s &tis ]arm season summer : (2rom )aistot&t Indo &ermanic )aidhto)@ aestus - <s (2rom  )aidhtu) ]heat glo sur2: aestu&re ] cook surge roar :@
Old &ermanic N *istom,dius (] ith quick-temered courage :) Old %nglish  &st  2. ]dried sto!e: engl. oast  ]drying room drying lo2t:.
  r 2ormantsE gr. j’wx` ]the uer air: (maked. |Ê) jÄw`j ]the cheer2ul sky: (maked. |`jf) jÄw`f ]brightly cheer2ully (2rom the eather): 2or hat changing by ablaut ’wj` :cheer2ully: Old Indic v8dhrá (=viidhrá) ds.
l- 2ormantsE gr. j’w jÄwj ]soot: maked. |[email protected] under accetance o2 a de!eloment 2rom ]shining aearing: ] too aarently : one uts a little bit constrainedly here Old %nglish 8del ]!ain ointless triing: Old ,igh &erman  8tal odern ,igh &erman eitel.
  s-2ormantsE es-stem gr. jÄw n. ]&lo 3re: = Old Indic dhas n. ]3reood:.
  ontinuing 2ormationE Old Icelandic eisa 2. (Daidh-s-,n) ]3re: Noregian ],earth: iddle +o &erman ?se 2. ]chimney 3re sto!e : (hoe!er Old ,igh &erman essa : chimney hearth : see belo &-s ] burn :)@ A!estan a?sma m. ]*ireood: ()aidhsmo c2 ithout s Old Indic idhmá- m. ds.)@ in addition Baltic Daismi& in +ithuanian Nesmg ]3reood:@ +ithuanian aistr 2. ] assion :@ Old $ech niest" (2em. 1l.) ] sto!e : later nNst" (ith n- suggestion by rong decomosition o2 the connections DvXn-st"e  Ë vXnst"achX Berneker K) 2rom )[email protected] in addition $ero grades )idhsto in slo!. istg "e stg "e 1l. ] sto!e hole :@ to 9ohansson I*. >H >Q\ also Old Indic iOPQak& ] o2 burnt bricks : A!estan  iRtya n. ] brick (baked brick) :.
aybe alb. (Diska) hith ] blight burning nettle : (Diskra) hithra ]nettle: common alb k th.
  In )indh  goes backE alb. &eg idhunj 6osc idh5t5  ]bitter: 6osc idhjrNm  ]bitterness anger irritation: h\dhit5 hithra 1l. ]nettle: (9okl studies H).
Alb. and gr. are the only I% languages to reser!e the old laryngeal  .
References! 1. I K ,. >K C {Q 6rautmann Q "chy$er &r. &r. I Q{.
1robably to &-i4.
,ere also belongs aisk i2 originated 2rom aidhsk .
%age&s'! >>->
Root lemma! ai!- (Da,i!-) English #eaning! ] sell : $ee also! s. oid-. %age&s'! >>
Root lemma! aig-$" nasali$ed ing- (Da,ig-$) English meaning! dissirited sick ill #aterial! Alb. k5Jk ke7 ]nasty bad e!il: (2rom )ai;[email protected])@ common alb. old laryngeal k. +atin ae;er  ae;ra -um ae;rotus ] unell ill sick diseased su?ering 2eeble :@ Old Norse eikenn dismays ] ild 2urious : (inuenced by common eltic -ns- z -nn-)Old %nglish &col ] e4cited dismayed : Ne Noregian eik"a eikla ] continually ith attacks contradictions assertions torment :  eik"en  ]argumentati!e:@ 6ocharian Ì aik.a/re (= +atin )ae;ro) A ekro ]ill:@
  nasali$edE Din;-E +ithuanian Wn;is ]lounger idler : Wn;as and an;s ] idle sluggish :@
  Old Icelandic ekki  ]ain grie2 : = Old %nglish inca ] ain susicion quarrel : Old *risian inc (d. i. "inc) ]angry: also nengl. inkle ]anticiate 2oresee : inklin;  ] hisering notion indication sign :.
References! 1. I H ,. I >\ {Q 6rautmann C. %age&s'! >Q
Root lemma! aig-2  English meaning! oak #aterial! &r. j’•Æ ] an oaken kind : (see belo) resumably also `- jf `j-jf™ ] an uncertain tye o2 tree : (ossibly ]hard oak:).
  6he outcome 2rom j’•Æ aears ™Æ ™Æ ‰j~‡ ,es. c2 . v• ™v v ] bol bark : and 1lin. n. h. >\ \ >Q ae;ilops !ert pannos arentes non in cortice modo verum et e ramis dependentes /retschmer &l. Q QQK.
Old Norse eik  (conser!ati!e stem) 2. ]oak: Old "a4on ?k  Old %nglish &c  (engl. oak ) Old ,igh &erman eih iddle ,igh &erman eich eiche odern ,igh &erman [email protected]
All other cognates are dubiousE gr. ffŠ` (more roerly than jÄpf` s. *ick BB. QC Q) ossibly :asen: could be created as : tree trembler (Doak shaker) : also deri!ati!e like ’•Š` 2rom Dj’•Š` ] sing tremble : (E )ai; ] mo!e !iolently :)@
  +atin aesculus ](mountain oak) the inter or Italian oak : ()ai;sklosF) is still unclear a2ter its 2ormation maybe editerranean ord.
aybe alb. &eg (Dasi
) ahi ahu ]beech: the common alb. s & h in the middle o2  the ord ("ee Root lemma! suekr .- #eaning! ]mother-in la or 2ather-in- la: shi2t s & h in alb. (Dváura-) v"eh5rr  ] 2ather-in-la :). Root lemma! /s s-i-s 0s-en- os-k- ! ]ash tree (alb. ahi ]beech:): must ha!e deri!ed 2rom Root lemma! aig-2 ! ]oak (alb. ahu ]oak:):. References! 1. >>C ,. I C {{ "echt /8. \ >HK 2. ". unten ". > 8. >M. %age&s'! >Q
 6he !ery name o2 the root lemma 2or goat deri!ed 2rom the shield o2 8eus hich a2ter the crash ith clouds created thunderstorm. "ince the shield o2 8eus as co!ered ith goat:s skin the !ery name o2 the goat as stamed ith the name o2 the cloud shaker. ,ence Root lemma! ai#- ! (goat) is identical ith Root lemma! aig-1 ! (to mo!e si2tly mo!e !iolently sing !ibrate). in addition &ermanic name o2 the squirrelE Old ,igh &erman eihhurno eihhorn iddle ,igh &erman eichorn (odern ,igh &erman ichhorn ith suort o2 iche ]oak: and Horn ]horn: Old %nglish &cweornawern iddle +o &erman  ?keren ?khorn Old Norse 8korne .8k old ablaut or imairment 2rom aik - in additionF) Ne Noregian also eikorne Old "edish ?korne (as based on the concet ] e4ible singing itsel2 2rom branch to branch :@ in earliest ith one to )[email protected] [email protected][email protected] ] squirrel easel : the belonging second limbE )aikwerna)@ Old hurch "la!ic i;rX i;ra ] lay : i;rati er2ecti!e vX0i;rati ] „f`jÒ ho  0um dance : (2rom )%;[email protected] +ithuanian ith Berneker {).
References! 1. I >> 6rautmann >CQ. %age&s'! >Q->{
Root lemma! ai#- (Da,i#-) English meaning! goat NoteE *rom the older root Root lemma! ai#- (Dh2e,i#-)! ]goat: deri!ed Root lemma! agh-no-s (Dhegh-no-s )! ]lamb: and Root lemma! 0#- ! ]goat: E Root lemma! ka#o- or ko#o- -- ! ]goat:. #aterial! &r. jÄ“ - :nanny goat: Armenian  aic :nanny goat:@ $ero grade A!estan i0a?na ] 2rom leather : (actually ] 2rom goatskin : as gr. jÄpf c2 the same imortance relations ith )a6o ] goat :). References! 1. I "echt /8. \\ >Q. %age&s'! >Q
Root lemma! aigh-  English meaning! to be ashamed #aterial! #irectly 2rom the root ordE Old %nglish wan :desise: :be disgusted: also iddle +o &ermaneichelen ?chelen ?;elen (2rom )aiwil,n) (2rom it borros iddle ,igh &erman ekeln :be disgusted:).
  &r. jÅ„‰ n. ]disgrace: (2rom )ai;`hskos k - deri!ati!e o2 a s- stem )ai;`hes asE) &othic aiwiski n. ]disgrace embarrassment :@ c2 2urther j’„‰‡ ]shame sense o2 honor disgrace: j’„‰‡ ]dishonors !iolates dis3gures: med. ]a!oids me is ashamed o2 me: j’„‰` ]ignominious 2ull o2 [email protected] rebarbati!e:@ &othic unaiwisks ]unharmed: aiwisk,n act ]shame2ul: Old %nglish wisc.e/ n. ]disgrace o?ense: Ad0. ]shameless: iddle +o &erman  eisch ]nasty hideous: nnd. eisk  aisch ]re!olting rebarbati!e:.
References! 1. I *eist QC. %age&s'! >{
Root lemma! aik-  English meaning! to call (F) #aterial! &r. j’pf jpÎ ,es. +at!ian acin=t   ] load shout :.
  But jpÎ can be rescribed 2or j’pf ]atters: and acin=t  a deri!ati!e 2rom a   ]hears: e4lain (c2  vaic&t  ]ask: to vai).
References! 1. I Éhlenbach-%nd$elin I >.
%age&s'! >K
Root lemma! ai-2 (Da,i-2 ) English meaning! to dri!e to o!erhelm harm #aterial! resent D(a)i-neu-mi E Old Indic inóti Nnvati Imer. inuhN  articile inita (:penita ] ushed cut into :) ] enetrate into something master : A!estan inaoiti In2. a?naqhe ] !iolate hurt : ainita (2rom )aninita by halology) ] not !iolated not ainedly : (2rom Old Indic Jnas- n. ] rime sin mis2ortune : = A!estan a?nah ] act o2 !iolence crime : in addition m. : e!ildoer:F) A!estan intayE rae [email protected] torture : Old Indic iná- ][email protected] m. master : maybe also 8ti- 2. ]lague need:@ gr. j’ ]tremendous:@
  maybe herein in &othic !aNrina ]guilt reroach: Old ,igh &erman frin,n  ]sin: Old Icelandic frn n. 1l. ]the e4traordinary: (c2 eiseiler I*. {> H 2.) i2 original meaning ] act o2 !iolence :.
References! 1. I > *eist >QHM>{C. %age&s'! >C
Root lemma! ai-1" (Dhei [email protected]&) English meaning! to gi!e NoteE Root lemma! ap-$ (e4act %p-) E p- ! ]to take grab reach Dgi!e: z Root lemma! pi- ! ]comrade: z Root lemma! ai-1 ! ]to gi!e:. #aterial! &r. (Davinumai) jÄ~jf ]take ack touch: only resent and imer2ect tense.
  Venetic N (Davimos) *imos Illyrian N (Davetar 
) *etor .
+atin (Davemulus) aemulus ] emulous [email protected] in bad sense 0ealous. . or 2. as subst. a ri!al es. in lo!e : robably as ] reaches 2or something : (*risk %ranos {> KQ).
  6ocharian Ì (Davi
) ai- Ó in3niti!e Ì (Davitsi) aitsi Ó essi ]gi!e:@ ,ittite pa- a-i ] he gi!es : Q. 1l. pN (-ia)-an- 0i ith re!erb pe ]there:.
common ,ittite 1e E "la!ic 3o- E Albanian 2a- z R re34.
References! 1edersen &rouement C ,ittitisch >>K 6ocharisch @ *risk Indo-&ermanic >C 2. $ee also! ,ere belongs certainlyE aiti aito %age&s'! >C->>
%age&s'! >>
Root lemma! ai-r  English meaning! a k. o2 grass NoteE Root lemma! ai-r ! ]a k. o2 grass: is a reduced root Daitra 2rom hich deri!ed also Root lemma! ai-tro- ! ]bitter shar:. #aterial! Old Indic ?rak& ] a grass kind : gr. jÅ`j ] eed in the heat ryegrass darnel : j’`f jÄ`f ] 2rom ryegrass darnel :) +at!ian  ares  arenes : ryegrass darnel :. maybe through metathesis alb. (Dares ?ser ) e;"5r  ]+olium temulentum ryegrass darnel: common alb. s ;" shi2tX. References! 1. I > "echt #ekl. C\>. %age&s'! >\
Root lemma! aisk- (Da,isk-) English meaning! bright shining #aterial! Anord. eiskra ] rage be2ore hot e4citement : nisl. iskra also 2rom burning ain.
  +ithuanian áiRkus here beside $ero grade Old +ithuanian iRks ]clear bright :.
  'uss. dial. "áska demin. "ásoka ] bright star : beside it Old Bulgarian "asno  Ad!. ]clear bright distinct: russ. "ásny" ]light clear bright: 2rom [email protected] oln.
 "askry "askrawy  ]blinding da$$ling brilliant : 2rom [email protected] Old Bulgarian iskra  ] sark : etc. 2rom Diskr& 
Also alb. $ero grade (D "askry 
 ]melt burn: articile Dscrum z shkrumb ]ashes: common alb. m mb shi2tX loaned in 'umanian scrum ]ashes:.
  'uss. dial. "áska demin. "ásoka ] bright star : besides Old Bulgarian "asno  Ad!. ] clear distinct : russ. "ásny" ] bright clear : 2rom )[email protected] oln. "askry
 "askrawy  ] brilliant sarkling : 2rom )[email protected] Old Bulgarian iskra ]sark: etc. 2rom )iskr&
  ,ere the *lN odern ,igh &erman *isch (Ba!aria) ysch.en) (+u4embourg) nengl. *Le 2rom eltic or Venetic-Illyrian )*isk&
References! 1. I 6rautmann { 1okorny 5rill. C >>Q . *<rster 6hemse QH. $ee also! erhas originated 2rom )aidhsk  or 2rom )aisk in 0i-4. %age&s'! >\->
Armenian aicU ()aissk   V &) ]in!estigation:@ 5mbrian eiscurent  (Bugge /8. QC {C) ]they ill ha!e caused to come called sent 2or in!ited summoned 2etched : (robably as )ehiscurent  : they ill ha!e dri!en out ushed 2orth thrusted out taken out e4elled :)@ +atin aerusc&re ]to beg to get money by going about and e4hibiting tricks o2 legerdemain to lay the 0uggler : as )aisosk   V o  ]demanding : to A!estan Im. iRas& ]longs 2or: (esk   V o besides sk   V oM isaiti  ]ishes:)@ Old ,igh &erman eisc,n ] research ask demand (odern ,igh &erman heischen ]demand: ith h a2ter heissen ]hot:) Old "a4on ?sc,n ?scian ]demand: Old %nglish &scian &Lian ] try demand ask: Old ,igh &erman eisca ]demand: Old %nglish >sce 2. ]in!estigation:@ in Balto-"la!ic ith non-alatal k  o2 the resent suG4-sk, (toards Aryan Armenian -sk   Ô-) hat is not to be e4lained by borroing 2rom &[email protected] +ithuanian NeRkau ieRkóti ]look: +at!ian ixsk=t  ] to delouse : Old hurch "la!ic iskY (and iRtY) iskati ]look: iska ]ish:. References! 1. I > ,. >H 6rautmann \. %age&s'! >\
Root lemma! ais-2  English meaning! to be in ae to orshi NoteE  6he Root lemma! ais-2 ! ]to be in ae to orshi: is a truncated root o2 ai- ska. 6he 2ormant ska is a common &ermanic suG4 added to Root lemma!  ai-1 ! ]to gi!e: #aterial! Old ,igh &erman ?ra odern ,igh &erman hre Old %nglish &r  ] 'elie2 considerate treatment honour luck : Old Norse  eir  ] considerate treatment eace also name o2 the medicine goddess :@ o2 it Old ,igh &erman  ?r?n ?r,n ] honor sare betake : Old %nglish &rian ] honor sare betake : Old Norse eira :sare:.
  Oscan aisusis Abl. 1l. ]sacri3ces: arrucinian aisos #. 1l. ] gods: 1aelignian  aisis ] gods : Volscan esaristrom ] sacri3ce : 5mbrian esono ] di!ine sacred : come 2rom %truscan. #i?erently #e!oto "t. %tr. K HH 2.
d- e4tensionE gr. jÄ|~jf (2rom )ai0d) ] shies re!eres : j’|™ -Õ ] re!erence shyness shame : j’|~jf (Dj’|„-~jf) ]jÄ|~jf:@ &othic aistan -aida ] a!oid ay attention :@ $ero grade Old Indic 8 ] re!eres raises imlores :.
References! 1. I >Q ,. I C {>H {{@ *eist a /retschmer &l. QC . %age&s'! >\
Root lemma! ai-ti-" ai-to- E oi-to-  English meaning! art share allotment quantity quota ortion stake stock roortion cut contribution omentsE Root lemma! ai-ti-" ai-to- E oi-to- ! ]art share allotment quantity quota ortion stake stock roortion cut contribution: is a truncated root D aitra  into the suG4ed Root lemma! ai-2 ! ]to dri!e to o!erhelm harm: ith the 2ormant tra. #aterial! A!estan a?ta ] the roer art :(: unishment :@ dual ] guilt and unishment :).
roer : jf„f~ ] aly use consume : j’„~ ] disenses 0ustice it rules :@
|fjf (maybe dissimilated 2rom D|fjff) ] be a re2eree [email protected] di!ide (the ay o2) li2e = leads a certain ay o2 [email protected] rescribe a certain measure in 2ood and drinking : hence |•jfj : re2eree:s oGce : and ] li2e-style li2e arrangement : Ø“jf ] ell-chosen articular :.
  Oscan &en. aeteis ]artis: aNttN:m ]ortionum:.
*rom &r. here robably also jÄf ] resonsible guilty : ( a2ter j’) 2rom hich later j’•j ] guilt cause :@ also j’ j’• :demands: as ] requires his interest :@ ablaut. Å m. :#estiny:.
  Old Irish &es n. cymr. oes 2. ] eriod age : 2rom Dait -to- Old Irish &es m. :1eole: 2rom )aittu cymr. oed m. :Age: 2rom )aito.
References! 1. I ,irt Indo &ermanic &r. II 2. "chy$er &r. &r. > {>Q \H\H CK. %age&s'! >>
Root lemma! ai-tro-  English meaning! bitter sharX omentsE Root lemma! ai-tro- E ]bitter shar: is a truncated root Daitra into the suG4ed Root lemma! ai-2 ! ]to dri!e to o!erhelm harm: ith the 2ormant tra. #aterial! +ithuanian aitrs ] bitterly harsh : aitr 2. ]sharness: (also 3gurati!e)@ the nasal 2ormation )intro erhas in Old Bulgarian obtriti ]set on 3re : ru. 0a"át9i  ]anger: klr. ro0"atrzti Ra ]2ester:. References! 1. I Q Berneker \H. $ee also! erhas in 0i-4. %age&s'! >
Root lemma! aiu-" aiu-  #eaning! ]!ital energy !itality: NoteE Root lemma! aiu-" aiu- ! ]!ital energy !itality: deri!ed 2rom reduced Root lemma! gei -1 and gei %- E g(i)i- E g(i)i- E g*- 2requent o2ten ith -u-  e4tended! to li!e #aterial! Old Indic &  yu- n. a nominali$ed ad0ecti!e to &{: ] e4ibe acti!e :@  &yu  Ù- m. ] &enius o2 the !itality : thereo2 deri!ed s-stem &  yu n. &en. &yuRa  ] !itality : ()& [email protected] &en. [email protected])@ n-stem in the locati!e. &yuni Instr. &yun&@ 
 y:h U] !itality :@
  A!estan &y< n. :+i2e san: &en. yaoR dat. yav,i Instr. yav& o2 it yava?t&t ] duration : yava?"8 ] li!ing alays :@ yuR m :+i2e san:@
  &r. s-stemE yriot *jf j (= |fÏ _•)@ locati!e ithout suG4. lakon. j’ :alays:@ hom. j’p• Attic p• (Djf*p„f) Akk. Attic j’Ç (Djf*„j)@ #at.-+ok. ithout e4tension in Ionian j’• +esbian f (Djf*f) (a2terards •Š|f :2ore!er: |-jf :long-li!ing:)@ n-stemE j’™ m. (and 2. a2ter j’™) ] !itality li2e san : j’ :alays:@
  +atin o-stem aevus m. and aevum n. ]eternity age time li2etime or time o2 li2e a eriod o2 li2e :@ hoe!er are based aetas 2. :ageE o2 human li2e either a li2etime or time o2 li2e age a eriod o2 time eoch: old aevitas (2rom it Oscan &en. aNtateNs Akk. aNtat:m 1aelignian Abl. aetatu) ] age time o2 li2e : aeternus ] o2 an age lasting enduring ermanent endless 2ore!er: in ad!erbial  )[email protected] i.
  &othic o-stem aiws m. ] time eternity orld :@ i stem ad!erbial aiw ([email protected]) = Old Icelandic > ei (also in ei;i :not:) Old %nglish & , Old ,igh &erman io ] e!er alays : &othic ni aiw :ne!er: Old ,igh &erman neo nio odern ,igh &erman [email protected] Old %nglish n& engl. no ] not no :@
aybe alb. (D,) "o ]not no: (common alb. Úsla!. 0- re34.
Old Icelandic lan;r  +atin lon;aevus ] o2 great age aged ancient :@ i-stem also in Old Icelandic f vi 2. ([email protected]) ] li2e age :@ &-stem in Old ,igh &erman  ?wa 2. ] time eternity : thereo2 Old ,igh &erman  ?wid, :eternity: ?w8;  :2ore!er:@ &othic a"ukd<Cs 2. ]eternity: 2rom )a"uki (= Old %nglish ?ce  ]2ore!er:) ith Indo &ermanic ;-suG4 € Indo &ermanict<[email protected]
  6ocharian A &ym ]mind li2e: hich m attributed to &+m ] li2e :.
References! 1. I \ ,. I > %. > *eist QC Q Ben!eniste B"+ Q >CQ ? #um‚$il B"+ QH >HQ "echt /8. \ >H\ #ekl. ?. Van indekens >K. $ee also! *rom this deri!ed )[email protected]@en ([email protected]@3) :young:@ "echt also ants !ery much risqu‚ly be ut in addition Dai;- oak : (= ] !itality :F). %age&s'! >->
Root lemma! ai  > #eaning! ]e4clamation: #aterial! Old Indic ? e4clamation o2 remembering address [email protected]
  Old Indic ai the [email protected] ayi inter0ection ith the [email protected]
  A!estan &i inter0ection o2 the hone call (be2ore the !ocati!e)@
  gr. jÄ jÅ j’jÅ e4clamation o2 the surrise o2 astonishment or ain (thereo2 j’ ] sighs delores : jÄj~j :sigh:)@
  +ithuanian a  and ái ] oh blos : and be2ore !ocati!es.
References! 1. I > ,. I QH\ Ben!eniste Origines >QC 2. $ee also! see also /aik-. %age&s'! >C
Root lemma! aios- (Da,i os-) #eaning! ]metal ([email protected] iron): NoteE Root lemma! aios- ! ]metal ([email protected] iron): deri!ed 2rom Root lemma! eis- $ ! ]to mo!e raidly Deaon iron:. #aterial!  Old Indic áyas n. A!estan ayaqh n. ]metal iron:@
) and B e+cuwo (i+cuwo is !ariant on the same order as inte is to ente q.!.) reect 16ch De+cuwo. *urther connections are uncertain. "char$ (>H{E{CH) comares Ossetic Indon ]steel: or horasmian hnw ]id.: and suggests that the Iranian and 6ocharian ords might be borroings 2rom some adstratum language in the shae €Û Danuwan.
  thereo2 A!estan ayaqha?na ] metallic iron : +atin a?nus ()[email protected] = 5mbrian ahesnes ] o2 coer o2 bron$e :) a?neus Old %nglish ren Old "a4on Old ,igh &erman iddle ,igh &erman ?r8n odern ,igh &erman ?ren (ehern). desite 1okorny /8. {\ H 2. is not Indo &ermanic  [email protected] old borroing 2rom 
 *"as"a older *Fas."a/ the old name o2 yrus as +atin cuprum E ‡v` there according to #. #a!is (B"A. QC {-\ >HQ) the coer its ere tackled in yrus only in late ycenaean time.
  ,ere +atin aestim, old aestum, ] to araise rate estimate the !alue [email protected] to assess the damages in a [email protected] in a ider sense to !alue a thing or [email protected] hence in gen. to 0udge : #enomin. 2rom )aistemos ] he cuts the ore : (to  temn,).
References! 1. I { ,. I >H C *eist Q>. $ee also! 6o 0i-4 ] burn :F %age&s'! >K->\
Root lemma! akk  #eaning! ]mother (children:s seech): #aterial! Old Indic akk& :mother: (gram.) gr. ™ ] nurse o2 #emeter : ™ : ghost : •p„wjf ] be coy osition onesel2 stuidly : +atin  *cca }&rentia ] +aren mother 'oman hall goddess : (robably %truscan)@ also into "mall-Asian [email protected] comare la. Badderakka :earth mother:. aybe alb. *"kuna ]great mother: in alb. eos. References! 1. I Q{ ,. I K. about 6ocharian ammaki see belo am.m/a. %age&s'! Q
Root lemma! ak   + -" ok   + - (Dek   + -) #eaning! ][email protected] stone: #aterial! >. e5o- and -"tE
Ners. &s (lengthened-grade 2orm) ]millstone grindstone:@ gr. x ]oint: lengthened-grade 2orm Ionian Œx x ‘vf|`j• Œ~x ,es. redul. x ] oint edge : (as x E )@ a2ter /retschmer /8. QQ K\ and "chy$er &r. &r. I Q{ belongs ‡ ]hears: as D-- ]ha!ing shar ear: here see hoe!er >. [email protected] alb. ath5t5 ]shar sour: common alb. k thX.
+atin ac?re ]shar cutting keen. ,ence to taste [email protected] to touch [email protected] o2 sounds [email protected] o2 smells [email protected] o2 sight [email protected] o2 emotions [email protected] o2 understanding quick !igorous energetic: acidus ] sour acid tart : ac?tum ] !inegar :@
aybe alb. acar  ]2rost shar steel: E 'omanian acar  ] signalman ointman sitchman in cushion :.
hetstone : (ith the unclear second [email protected] to e4lain bret. !ocalism o2 the initial sound by the retone)@ (common eltic -ns- z -nn-) mc. cy!o;i ] !omit 3ght : ith secondary [email protected] acymr. cemecid ncymr. cy!e;ydd ()k   V om ok   V [email protected]) ] icka4e :@
  ith $ero gradeE acymr. diauc ncymr. dio; mbr. dieuc (Dd?-&k   V o-) ]decayed soiled : mcymr. ymamo;awr  (D-&k   V &-r ) ] one stirs is acti!e : (+oth '. {K >H>) and mbr. eau; nbret. eok  ] rie made so2t : ()eks&k   V o) to gall. eL&cum ] centaurion leton : (%rnault &loss. Bret. C>)@ comare also abo!e ". [email protected]
  "edish a; m. ]marsh grass ladium mariscus edge blade: ()ak   V o ) iddle ,igh &erman a; ]erch: e;le e;linc ds. odern ,igh &erman "iss e;el #emin. e;li Old "edish a;hborre ds. maybe also "edish a;; ]rancor hatred : a;;a ]sting torment: Noregian dial. a;;e ]tooth oint: ()ak   V uko or e4ressi!e &eminationF) as ell as (ith secondary &ermanic !oel gradation   a E u or 2rom )ak   V uko  ith assimilation a in uF) Noregian dial. u;; ]sting 2rightening: "edish dial. u;; ]oint tooth: Old Norse u;;r  ]2ear: Noregian dial. u;;e ]3n:@ +ithuanian ak:otasD ]an: ~Raka ()ak   V ok&) ]3sh bone bran: = russ. osoka ]sedge: Old 1russian ackons ()ak   V ,no) ds.
aybe alb. (De;el) e;"
. i and "- stemsE
  Armenian aseFn ]needle: (2rom )asiFn eillet %squisse {Q)@ gr. • -•| ] oint sting :@ +atin aci?s ] keenness [email protected] o2 the mind enetration [email protected] o2 the eye a iercing look or keen [email protected] sometimes the uil o2 the eye or the eye itsel2. ilit. battle [email protected] hence battle battle3eld :@ Old "a4on e;;"a 2. Old ,igh &erman etc ekka ]oint sord edge: odern ,igh &erman cke (roto &ermanic Da•[email protected], Old Norse e;; ]edge cli? backs: e;;"a ]sharen sur on: Old %nglish ec; ] edge blade sord: (2rom it borros iddle Irish ec; ]edge: nbret. ek  ]oint:) e;le 1l. ]ans: engl. [email protected] Old hurch "la!ic osla ()osXla) russ. os5Fok  m. ]hetstone: $ech osina 2. ]an:.
  about Old %nglish eher  ]ear : see belo s- 2ormant.
Q. u-stemE
 ]land o2 the eagles Albania: sh7ip  ]language o2 the eagle-men Albanian language:.
"anish a;ui"ón E *rench ai;uillon E atalan a;ulló E 1ortuguese a;uilh~o E 'omagnolo a;uci€n da tJsta E 'omanian (D(a/;himpe) ;himpe E Albanian ;lemb ;"5mb ] sting : 2rom Vulgar +atin a7uileo -onis [ a7uileus [ acus ] needle :. %nglish needle
Italian ago "anish agu0a *rench aiguille Albanian &eg g0yl-anR 6osc g0il-RrR Aragones agulla Bergamasco gogia Bresciano ocia @ ucia alabrese acu @ saccurale @ $accura2a atalan aculla *urlan gusiele &alician agulla &riko "alentino !elÜni
Irish sn°thaid +atin acus udn‚s g¶ccia Naulitano aco Nissart agÝlha 1aduan ago 1iemontese gucia 1ortuguese agulha 'omagnolo agÜccia 'omanian ac "ardinian amidanesu acu @ sigoni "ardinian +ogudoresu acu @ agu "icilian ugghia @ ugliola @ $accura2a  6rentino u$a Valencian agulla Venetian ago @ ucia @ gucia
gall. acaunum ()akounon) ]rock :@ Illyrian ON *cumincum today S0lankamen  ]salt stone: (Banat)@
odern ,igh &erman *chel 2. ]ear oint an: 2rom ndd. a;;el (ith sirant. ;) 2rom Indo &ermanic Dak   V u-l&@ Old %nglish &wel m. ]2ork: Old Norse so&ll ]meat 2ork: (&ermanic )ahwala Indo &ermanic Dák   V [email protected])@ i2 here gallo-+atin  opulus ]common male : (arstrander orr. &ermanic-celt. >) ould be laced Indo &ermanic )ok   V [email protected] @ about Old Norse u;;r  etc. see eMo-stem about Old %nglish Jar  see [email protected] cymr. ebill ]drill: mbr. ebil ]eg nail : (Dak   V u  Ö- [email protected])@
Baltic )aRus in +at!ian ass ] shar ointed : +ithuanian aRuta  m. 1l. ] coarse horse hair : = "la!ic )oRuta m. ] thistle : in hurch "la!ic sXtX russ. osót . On account o2 here 6ocharian A &c&we ]rough: (Van indekens +e4ique >K)F
  see belo ),k   V us ] 2ast (shar in the mo!ement) :.
  {. ith m-2ormantE
ak   + mo-5- 
&r. ~x ] oint edge [email protected] the highest oint clima4 decisi!e oint : (~x Ad!. ~jÎ ~)@ "edish dial. ‚m ] marsh grass ladium mariscus: (&ermanic )ahma comare *innish loanord ahma ] equisetum :).
ak   + -men-5-mer- 
Old Indic aman- n. ] stone sky : (as a stone !ault 'eichelt I*. Q Q ?.)  amará ] stone : A!estan asman] stone sky : (Old Indic &en. ána Instr. án& A!estan &en. aRn, Abl. aRn&at   ƒ ith -n- 2rom [email protected] Instr. 1l. Old Indic  an&ih U a2ter o-stem)@ 1hrygian 1N ~•[email protected] gr. ~ : an!il meteor hea!en : ~ Þ †`[email protected] +ithuanian ~Rmens m. 1l. : edge : akmu„ e+s m. : stone :.
  K. ith n-2ormantE
ak   + en- 
Old Indic aáni ] head o2 the arro missile:@ A!estan  sq; Old ers. a…an;a ] stone : (Dak -en-;o Ben!eniste Orig. )@ gr. jfj ] oint [email protected] longitudinal dimension : (hoe!er about +atin acuna ] a ca!ity hollo [email protected] es. a ool ond. 6rans2. ga de3ciency loss: see ,. I H) ] hetstone : - ] sear : (2or older D- a2ter the articiles) • ] thro the sear : j ] thistle kind rickly head lant : j•pf ] 2ruit carry rickly heads : jw ]thistle: (2rom D j-jw ]sting oer:) jwj ] thistle sting thorn sine es. o2 the 3sh : jjw• : gold3nch : (2rom Djwj•) jw ] barque : f ] oman:s shoe : ()ak   V nQo robably 2rom the ointed 2orm)@ +atin  a;na ] ear o2 grain : (2rom  Dak   V n&)@ &othic ahana 2. ] cha? : Old Norse Y;n Old %nglish e;enu 2. and  Ie;nan 1l. Old ,igh &erman a;ana ds. odern ,igh &erman *hne dial. *;en  ]stalk slinter o2 the a4 or hem: (&ermanic )a; )ahan, Indo &ermanic  Dak†n&)@ +ithuanian ßem. aRnWs ] edge srouting germinating soing : +at!ian asns m. ] germ bursting out :.
  \. ith r -2ormantE
- 2ormant deri!ed the labio!elarsE ak   + er-" ok   + er- hose $ero grade roduced alb. (Dk   V `erna) ;urr5 ]stream: common alb. rn rr  shi2tX (Dk   V `er) ;ur  ]stone:@
  ,ere also maybe the name o2 the male (due to the ointed lea2 sections)E
  +atin acer  -eris n. ] the male tree or male ood : (2rom acer arbor  became Vulgar +atin acerabulus eyer-+Ébke '%. HQ) #anish >r  ds. (&ermanic Dahira-)@ odern ,igh &erman dial. *cher  ds. (&ermanic Dahura-)@
gr. j„ „|j~ ,es. (Dj`„ meaning as vjf„ beside [email protected] to stem comare also j`j | ,es.)@ gallo 'ome. )akaros  )akarnos ] male : (,ubschmied '. KC \Q 2.)@ Old ,igh &erman ahorn  ]male:
(2rom "iss and other oral kinds ould de!o certainly & - hoe!er & -ould ha!e arisen also o2 eole:s etymological distortion like iddle +o &erman  &nhorn &lhorn]ahorn (Indo &ermanic )ak   V rno) is u to the declension class = j`j hile +atin acernus ] o2 male : is syncoated 2rom )[email protected] hoe!er that n has robably also arisen 2rom the 2ormer ad0ecti!e material de!eloing 2ormants -no- and not 2rom r$n-stem by accumulation o2 both elements.
  'ather that c