navy in the napoleonic era 1783-1815 sea power & maritime affairs lesson 3

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  • NAVY IN THE NAPOLEONIC ERA 1783-1815 Sea Power & Maritime Affairs Lesson 3
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  • Admin Anything you want to include Quizzes Assignments Etc
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  • Last Class American Revolution Causes Battles Outcomes Role of Navies
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  • Today 1.Navy after American Revolution 2.Barbary Wars Reestablishment of Navy (1794) Piracy 3.Anglo-French (Napoleonic) Wars Quasi War War of 1812
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  • 8 Key Themes 1.Navy as an instrument of foreign policy 2.Interaction between Congress and Navy 3.Interservice relations 4.Technology 5.Leadership 6.Strategy & Tactics 7.Evolution of US Naval Doctrine 8.Future missions of Navy and USMC
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  • Warning For the sake of clarity, this information is presented in thematic order, rather than chronological order. Please be mindful of this as you study it.
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  • Napoleonic and Barbary Wars Video
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  • Treaty of Paris US Independent Must organize itself Key issues Defense GB/Spain/France/Native Americans No maritime protection Trade Between states On oceans Brit trade advantage lost Protection from pirates States v. Central Govt Division of power? 1783
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  • Fate of Navy and Marines Articles of Confederation Ratified 1781 No state may maintain a peace-time standing army or navy. Congress must collect taxes to create Navy Results Continental Navy and Marine disbanded All ships sold by 1785
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  • 2 nd Constitution Convention Problems with Articles of Confederation States too powerful | central govt too weak Saw military as rifle on mantelpiece Federalist Papers Federalist No. 11: Hamilton argues for Navy New Constitution Ratified 1788 Expands powers of central government Article 1, Section 8: Congress shall have Powerto provide and maintain a navy (but none created until 1794)
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  • Navalists Non-Navalists Continued Debate Want large navy for: Symbol of national greatness Balance of power in Europe Protect commerce Want small/no navy because: Expensive Provocation for war Didnt want drawn into European wars Hire fleet if needed Who are they? Citizens of merchant towns Particularly north-east Federalists John Adams, Hamilton, John Jay Who are they? Rural farmers Particularly south Democrats Thomas Jefferson
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  • Barbary Pirates Drive to re-establish Navy and Marine Corps (1794)
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  • Barbary Pirates Reason for Navy/USMC: Barbary Pirates No Navy to protect commerce Pirates began capturing American merchantmen in Med and Atlantic We create fleet to quash them
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  • Barbary States
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  • Barbary Pirates Tribute System Most countries paid a tribute to Barbary Pirates Colonies no longer protected under British tribute Pirates began attacking American merchantmen Started during revolution | increased after Captured and sold US ships Sold crew for ransom or into slavery Reaches a boiling point when Portugal signs treaty with pirates No longer policing them, or keeping them pinned in Med Pirates take a few American ships in a few weeks
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  • Congress Debates Response Pay tribute? Declare war on pirates? How to fight without Navy? Agreement: Naval Act of 1794 Build Navy while seeking treaty One-time authorization for 6 Frigates Explicit purpose to defeat Barbary pirates If treaty signed, ships will not be completed Ships designed with 44 guns because largest Barbary warship had 44 guns Secretary of War responsible for Navy Dept.
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  • Humphreys Frigates 3 of 44 guns, 3 of 36 guns Joshua Humphreys designed them Highly advanced ribbed design Made to last 100 years Georgia live oak exterior Rated to 50+ guns Establish five Navy shipyards to build them Philadelphia, New York, Boston, Portsmouth, Baltimore, Norfolk Logistical mess Humphreys
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  • Treaty with Pirates US signed treaties Algiers (1795) | Tripoli (1796) | Tunis (1797) Pay tribute for safe passage Big Question: Complete the ships? Navalists want all six Non-navalists want zero Settlement: Complete three United States (44), Constellation (36), Constitution (44)
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  • All commissioned by 1797 USS Constitution USS Constellation USS United States
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  • 1 st Barbary War 1801-1805
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  • 1 st Barbary War Short Video 1 st Barbary War Longer Video 1.5 min 13 min
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  • 1 st Barbary War Cause 1.Pirates continued to harass American shipping Despite treaty and tribute 2.Dey of Tripoli demanded higher tribute Congress debated Tribute or war? Jeffersons opinion: Always opposed tribute Maintain a navy squadron in Med for protection Decision: Sent a squadron to defeat pirates 1801 - 1805
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  • 1 st Barbary War 1801-1802 Divided fleet Weak blockade of Tripoli harbor Escorted merchantmen Ineffective, but Inadequate force No US declaration of war Richard Dale 1802-1803 7 frigates, 1 sloop Family with him Disobeyed orders Lie off Tripoli Commits force to convoy escort Highly ineffective Recalled and dismissed from Navy Edward Morris 1803-1805 Adept leader/fighter Prebles Boys Credited with defeating Pirates Edward Preble Commodores Tipoli declared war while Dale enroute The Man
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  • 1 st Barbary War Preble 1802-1804 Blunders and Heroes USS Philadelphia Decatur & USS Intrepid Gunfire against fort Gunboats Action at other Barbary States
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  • 1 st Barbary War Presley OBannon William Eaton Eaton, Hamet, OBannon Dey agrees to terms $60,000 for release of prisoners No more tribute payments
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  • 1 st Barbary War What it taught U.S. 1.Diplomacy Validates Navy = useful & effective First example of gunboat diplomacy 2.Tactics Gunboats with forts = effective Validates blockading 3.Heroes & heroics = national pride
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  • Jeffersonian Naval Policy President (1801-1809) Wanted navy for: 1.Defense For ports: Gunboats and forts For coast: Small cruising frigates & ships-of- the-line 2.Settle manageable disputes Ability to fight weak adversaries i.e. Barbary Pirates Congress cuts Navy funding
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  • Gunboat Navy Cost: Frigate: $300,000 Gunboat: $10,000 Crew: 20 Propulsion: Small sails and oars Guns: 2 or 3 cannon 18-, 24-, and 32-pound Stationed in major cities 172 at peak, but utter failure during War of 1812 without support of forts. Jefferson Presidency: 1807-1809
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  • Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars 1792-1815
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  • Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars Resumed with French Revolution (1789) Monarchy overthrown French King & Queen beheaded (1793) Brits declared war 7 wars over 22 years World War: all European nations entwined Napoleon rises to power (1799) Conquers most of Europe France controlled the land (5x size British Army) Brits controlled the seas (2x size French Navy)
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  • Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars Formal treaty with France American-style revolution Pro: Thomas Jefferson Trade/heritage with Britain British invasion dangerous Pro: John Adams & Hamilton FranceGreat Britain America in the middle Mixed allegiances and motives 1.Alliance with France 2.Trade issues British blockaded France across globe Orders in Council no foreign trade with France Continental System French response Difference: British could enforce it
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  • Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars Official US policy: Neutral Reasons 1.No appetite for ongoing European wars 7 Years War, Am Revolution, now more wars 2.Money Economy booming Trade with both was enormously profitable Washington declared 1.American alliance was only with French king His execution ended American military obligation 2.US proclaims right to trade with both nations
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  • Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars Neutrality Issues Adams Administration US merchant ships captured by French & British Adams reaction: Jays Treaty (1797) Quasi War (1798) Jefferson Administration More merchant ships captured Jeffersons reaction: Embargo Act (1807) Highly unpopular= destroyed merchant economy US navy ordered to blockade its own coast Did not work. James Madison repealed
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  • Anglo-French Napoleonic Wars Neutrality Issues Madison Administration Repealed Embargo Act Passes Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 Trade with everyone but France and England. Macon's bill No. 2 (1810) Trade with everyone including France and England US would reward whichever would first repeal its trade restrictions against US. Napoleon agreed, and US re-imposed embargo on England in February 1811
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  • Battles & Wars 7 Wars in 22 years 1792-1815 Land war Culminates in failed French invasion of Russia Sea war Culminates at Battle of Trafalgar (1805) GB v. France Quasi War 1798 - 1800 Where? Caribbean First US naval victories US v France War of 1812 1812-1815 Where? Great Lakes Chesapeake Atlantic Gulf Europe Pacific Stunning victories, but US doesnt really win or lose war US v GB
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  • Battle of Trafalgar Culminat


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