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    A

    Seminar Report on

    VIDEO CELL PHONES

    Prepared by

    ROSY J. SINGH

    Guide: Ms. AVANI PATEL

    Department of Electronics Engineering

    Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology

    Dr. R K Desai Marg, Athwa Lines, Surat.

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    A Seminar Report on

    VIDEO CELL PHONES

    Prepared by : Rosy J. Singh

    Roll No. : 51

    Class : B.E.IV (Electronics Engineering) 8th Semester

    Year : 2001-2002

    Guided by : Ms. Avani Patel

    Department of Electronics Engineering.

    Sarvajanik College of Engineering & TechnologyDr R.K. Desai Road,

    Athwalines, Surat - 395001,India.

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Many have contributed to the successful completion of this report. I

    would like to place on record my grateful thanks to each of them.

    Ms. Avani Patel, my guide, has helped me immensely throughout

    the research. She has also helped in reading, modifying and correcting

    the report.

    I am also indebted to the staff and members of Electronicsdepartment of SCET for their assistance.

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    ABSTRACT

    Cell phones have been the wave of our future for some time now.

    More than 100 million cell phones are in use in the World today, and it will rise to

    more than 200 million by 2003 according to International Data Corp.'s (IDC) mostrecent estimates. Every year they get better and smaller, but what else can the

    cellular phone companies do in order to improve or upgrade it?

    Video cell phones have been introduced to be the next generation (third

    generation) of cell phone history. Samsung Electronics and Geo Interactive Media

    Group announced that they have developed the first video cell phone successfully in

    November of 2000.

    The seminar aims to analyze how the video cell phone works, and what

    are the requirements for example MPEG4, bandwidth, etc. Basically,it deals with

    the following three requirementsthe wireless network needed,the hardware and

    finally the video code required. It also studies the first working cellphone

    produced by Samsung and GEO using the A2 chip.

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    INDEX

    1.Introduction

    2.The evolution of mobile communication

    3.3G technology

    3G Features

    3G Talking Points

    3GReady or not?

    3GVideo on Mobile

    Video on mobilesome innovative applications

    First video cell phone4. Wireless networks

    Overview of some wireless systems

    CDMA,TDMA & GSM

    Improvements needed for the wireless network

    CDMA 2000-Delivering on 3G

    CDMA Deployments

    CDMA-Migration5.Hardware

    A2 ASIC Chip

    Working of A2

    Features of A26.Video Code

    Video code

    MPEG-4

    MPEG Architecture

    MPEG-2 V/s MPEG-4Conclusion

    Bibliography

    0102

    0507080910

    10

    121314151516

    182021

    2425293132

    33

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    1. INTRODUCTION

    More than a decade ago, Martin Cooper invented a product that has

    become ubiquitous in modern lifethe CELLPHONE. However, initially it

    was huge and heavy. The connection and reception of the network was also

    bad. At that moment, cell phones were not a necessity and they were mostly

    owned by wealthy people, business people, and important authoritative

    figures. As time went by, technology improved, and the cell phone began

    getting smaller, cheaper and better. Nowadays, almost everyone has a cellphone. The functionalities of the cell phones increased also. It not only works

    as a phone, it has clock, alarm, games, calendar, notes, reminder features,

    online capabilities etc. This stage of cell phones was the second generation

    cell phone.

    Video has emerged as the latest obsession in the high-tech world The

    third generation cell phone have the video function added to the it. Therefore,

    people can not only send text messages, they will also be able to send a video

    message to their friends, families, co-worker, classmate etc.

    This report briefly describes what the requirements of the video cell

    phone are. There are three main points that people should be working on for

    the video cell phone: the wireless network requirement, the hardware needed,

    and the kind of video code that should be used. It is divided into various

    chapters starting from the evolution of mobile communication,then covering

    the various aspects of 3G phones, and finally dealing with the details of the

    requirements of video cellphones.

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    2. THE EVOLUTION

    OF

    MOBILE COMMUNICATION

    The mobile communications industry has evolved in three stages:

    Three generations of mobile phones have emerged so far, each successive

    generation more reliable and flexible than the last:

    Analog: You could only easily use analogue cellular to make voice calls, and

    typically only in any one country.

    Digital mobile phone systems added fax, data and messaging capabilities as

    well as voice telephone service in many countries.

    Multimedia services add high speed data transfer to mobile devices, allowing

    new video, audio and other applications through mobile phones- allowing

    music and television and the Internet to be accessed through a mobile

    terminal.

    With each new generation of technology, the services which can de deployed

    on them becomes more and more wide ranging and truly limited only by

    imagination.

    ANALOG DIGITAL MULTIMEDIA

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    During the first and second generations different regions of the world pursued

    different mobile phone standards, but are converging to a common standard for

    mobile multimedia called Third Generation (3G) that is based on CDMA technology.Europe pursued NMT and TACS for analog and GSM for digital, North America

    pursued AMPS for analog and a mix of TDMA, CDMA and GSM for digital. 3G

    will bring these incompatible standards together

    The International Telecommunications Union(ITU) took the initiative to

    unify the disparate standards employed by various countries.The initiative was in the

    form of International Mobile Telecommunications 2000,also called as 3G.

    IMT 2000 provides a framework for worldwide wireless access by linking

    diverse terrestial and satellite based networks,mobile communication technologies

    and systems for fixed wireless access.The goal-to fulfil the dream of anywhere

    ,anytime communication.

    Following on the heals of analog and digital technology, the Third

    Generation will be digital mobile multimedia offering broadband mobile

    communications with voice, video, graphics, audio and other information. This

    transition is shown in Table below:

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    Genera

    tionType Time Description

    1st Analog 1980s Voice centric, multiple standards (NMT,TACS etc.)

    2nd Digital 1990sVoice centric, multiple standards (GSM,

    CDMA, TDMA)

    2.5

    Higher

    Rate

    Data

    Late1990s

    Introduction of new higher speed data

    services to bridge

    the gap between the second and Third

    Generation,

    including services such as General Packet

    Radio Service

    (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for Global

    Evolution (EDGE)

    3rd

    Digital

    Multime

    dia

    2000s

    Voice and data centric, single standard with

    multiple

    Modes

    3. 3G TECHNOLOGY

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    3G Features

    3G has the following features:

    Packet everywhere:

    With Third Generation (3G), the information is split into separate but related

    packets before being transmitted and reassembled at the receiving end.

    Packet switched data formats are much more common than their circuit switched

    counterparts. Other examples of packet-based data standards include TCP/IP, X.25,

    Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). As such, whilst packet

    switching is new to the GSM world, it is well established elsewhere. In the mobile

    world, CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), PDCP (Personal Digital Cellular

    Packet), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and wireless X.25 technologies have

    been in operation for several years. X.25 is the international public access packet

    radio data network standard.

    Internet Everywhere

    The World Wide Web is becoming the primary communications interface-

    people access the Internet for entertainment and information collection There is a

    trend away from storing information locally in specific software packages on PCs to

    remotely on the Internet.Hence, web browsing is a very important application for

    packet data.

    High Speed:

    Speeds of up to 2 Megabits per second (Mbps) are achievable with Third

    Generation (3G). The data transmission rates will depend upon the environment the

    call is being made in- it is only indoors and in stationary environments that these

    types of data rates will be available. For high mobility, data rates of 144 kbps are

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    expected to be available- this is only about three times the speed of todays fixed

    telecoms modems.

    New ApplicationsBetter Applications:

    Third Generation (3G) facilitates several new applications that have not

    previously been readily available over mobile