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  • 1. Middle Ages

2. The Middle Ages
What is it
The period in European history between the downfall of Rome and the Renaissance.**
Divisions of.
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
3. The Middle Ages
The Fall of Rome
External Threats
Northern Germanic Tribes
Invaded Roman Empire in 5th century**
Internal Threats
Growth and expansion ended
The Bad emperors
Social Divide
Results from the fall of Rome
Loss of Centralized Authority
Power Void
Dominance of Germanic culture or blending of
Loss of institutions
Decline of Learning
Ultimately a new form of government focused upon 1 factor (security)
4. Who fills void of Roman Empire
Rise to power
In 496 Clovis will rise to King**
511 Clovis unites the Franks into one kingdom
The Church
Provide for the loss of many institutions
Some Security
5. Organization of the Church
Essentially religious communities**
Monasteries enable the Church to adapt to the rural population shift of Middle Ages
Allowed the church to reach the people
Men devoted to religious life were monks; women were nuns**
Branch office
In 520 popular monk named Benedict appears
Benedict writes a set of very strict laws for his monasteries
Manual labor and prayer
731 Venerable Bede writes history of England
6. Church organization
Parishes: local Christian communities
Bishop: head of a parish
Diocese: area of authority of a bishop
Popes: eventual leaders of Roman Catholic Church
Early Popes
Gregory I
Becomes Pope in 590**
Also served as leader of the city of Rome (later called the Papal States)
Increased power of Pope
Worked to convert Germanic Europe to Christianity
G. Chant
7. The Franks
The Kings of Franks
Charles Martel
Defeats muslims at Battle of Tours 732
Mayor of the Palace (eventually took the throne)
Died 768
Charles the Great (son of Pepin)
Created the Carolingian Empire
Not until Napoleon
800 coronation; Emperor of the Romans
Symbolized unification of Roman, Germanic, & Christian Elements
Death in 814 will start the decline of Carolingian Empire
8. Invaders of Europe (800-1000)
Southern coast
Settled plains of Hungary
Northmen (Norsemen)
Destroyed towns and churches
Given land named Normandy
9. Rise of Feudalism
Feudalism: new political and social system
Vassal: served lord in military capacity
Fief: grant of land made to a vassal
Feudal Contract: determined relationship between lord and vassal
10. Rise of European Kingdoms
Angles & Saxons
Oct. 14, 1066
Battle of Hastings
William of Normandy; crowned King of England
Henry II (1154-1189)
Thomas Becket
King John
1215 Magna Carta (beginning of limited power)
Capetian Kings
Little more than Paris
Philip II Augustus
Growth of French Monarchy
Philip IV (Philip the Fair)
By 1300 France the largest & best governed monarchy in Europe
11. Rise of European Kingdoms
Holy Roman Empire
Otto I
962 crowned emperor of the Romans
Frederick I
Italy the centerofa holy empire
Frederick II
Goal: Strong centralized government in Italy
12. Time periods of the Middle Ages
True Dark Ages
Fall of institutions
13. High Middle Ages
Primary Themes
Peak of feudal institutions
Peak of Church influence
Revival of Trade, Cities, Learning
14. Peak of Church Influence
Age of Faith
Increase of intolerance
The Crusades
Urban II encourages military campaigns to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
Urbans challenge well received (religious zeal, class of warriors, economics)
False Crusade
1096 the Peasant Crusaders
Peter the Hermit
Walter the Penniless
Early Crusades
First 1097
Second 1147
Third 1189
Fourth 1202
15. Economic Impact of Crusades
16. High Middle Ages
Rise of Universities
First Universities
Bolgna (1158); then Paris, Oxford
After university could go on to law, medicine or theology
Scholasticism: philosophical and theological system which tried to reconcile faith and reason; harmonize Christian teachings with the works of Greek philosophers
17. Late Middle Ages
Decline of Feudal institutions
Hundred Years War
New Monarchies
Rise of money economy & commercial capitalism in High Middle Ages
Decline of Church influence
Great Schism 1378-1417
Black Death
European population of 75 million; possibly 38 million die
18. For the Test
Pages 283-308; 320-322; 329-340