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  • 1. Chapter 14 Medieval Europe

2. Geography of Europe 3. Europe-The second smallest continent I.Four Major Land Regions a. Northwest Mountains-poor farming soil b. North European Plain-flat lands make for Europes most fertile farmland c. Central Uplands-much rocky land; minimal farmland d. Alpine Mountain System-mountain chains, wide valleys, good farmland 4. II. Rivers a. Many rivers served as major transportation routes. i. Volga River: Europes longest river ii. Danube River iii. Rhine River 5. III. Climate a. warm, mild climate because of the Gulf Stream, a current which carries warm water to Europe from the Gulf of Mexico. b. Deforestation: cutting down forests to clear land-allowed for planting on fertile farmlands 6. Lesson 2: Rulers and Invaders A European Empire I. Domesday Book a. keep track of the number of people in England b. helped ruler set up a tax system 7. II. Charlemagne a. ruler crowned emperor by Pope Leo III b. Controlled a large empire and worked to keep it strong c. The kingdom fell apart after his death due to attacks by the Vikings 8. Invaders III. Vikings a. Fierce pirates or warriors from Scandinavia that invaded the empire b. At first they raided to steal goods, then set up trading centers and trade routes. 9. IV. William the Conqueror a. ruler of Vikings in the North b. settled troops in northern France c. became Christians and church leaders 10. A Change in Government V. King Johns leadership a. Most kings of Europe were strong and just, exceptexcept King John. b. demanded more military service and greater amounts of tax money from the people c. sold royal positions to highest bidder d. When he lost an important battle, a civil war broke out in England. e. Instead of facing defeat he signed the Magna Carta. 11. VI. Magna Carta a. Document that contained a list of promises made by King John in order to end the civil war in England b. also known as the Great Charter c. contained 63 clauses that mostly helped the lords and other landholders d. Most important about the Magna Carta was that it limited the power of the king The king now had to obey the law. 12. Lesson 3: Life in the Middle Ages The Church I. Christianity a. During the Middle Ages, Christianity played a major role in the lives of Europeans. b. The Pope was as powerful as a king. 13. c. Focus: Built cathedrals with magnificent stain- glass windows i. entire town worked for years on churches d. Monasteries and convents, home to monks and nuns, served as centers of religion and education. 14. Feudalism II. Feudalism a. Because the Middle Ages did not have a strong central government, a system of Feudalism was created by people to meet their needs for justicejustice and protection.and protection. 15. b. Social structure Monarch Lords Knights Serfs 16. c. Lords pledged loyalty and military support (protection) to the monarchy. d. In return, the monarchy gives these lords an estate. e. On lords land, the lord receives a large % of crops and income, taxes others, maintains order, enforce laws, and protect serfs. 17. Feudalism Declines III. Serfs a. Lower class of people that live and work on the land (sometimes called peasants) b. Unlike the other three groups, they had no loyaltyno loyalty to one another. c. Could not be bought or sold separate from the land d. Could not leave land without lords permission 18. IV. Knights a. trained warriors on horseback b. gave military support c. Code of Chivalry: a code of behavior in which the knight agreed to certain behaviors i. ready to die for the church ii. give generously to all iii. used strength to stand against injustice 19. The Manor System V. Manor System (NOT FEUDALISM) a. the way of organizing agricultural labor (farm help) and manage feudal lands b. allowed the lord of the manor, along with knights and serfs to be self-sufficient (meet ones needs) 20. c. Parts of the Manor System: i. Manor house and village: home to the lord, church, serfs cottages (make small village) ii. Farmland -three-field rotation Serfs were assigned one strip of land from each of the fields One field planted in fall, one field planted in the spring, third field left alone to stay fertile. As a result, each piece of land stays fertile. iii. Meadowland: animals grazed on the land iv. Wasteland: unusable land d. Surplus food was sold in market places. e. Towns grew because of surplus foods from the manors. 21. Guilds VI. Guilds a. group of people united by a common interest b. Merchants, bakers, goldsmiths, etc. had guilds that allowed the group to: i. work together to buy large quantities of goods cheaply and control the marketplace of each town. ii. control the quantity and quality of production iii. disallow non-members of the guild to sell goods within the town. iv. guarantee a fair price for goods v. prevent competition 22. Medieval Women VII. Medieval Women a. Married women had few rights in making their own decisions. b. Unmarried women who owned land did have some rights, but they lost them once they were married. c. A LADY (or noble woman)s actions were always directed by either her father or her husband. 23. Lesson 4: Crusades, Trade, and the Plague The Crusades/ East and West I.Crusades a. Constant fight between Christians and Muslims over Palestine which was considered the Holy Land for both groups. 24. b. Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus asked Pope Urban II to provide Christian knights to help fight against the Turks (Muslims from Central Asia) 25. c. Crusades i. Eight major military expeditions organized by Christians in western Europe ii. Kings, nobles, knights, peasants and townspeople became crusaders in attempt to win back Palestine. iii. Crusaders also fought to gain more economic or political standings. iv. During the Crusades while on journeys to the Holy Land, crusaders traded and increased commerce with people from around the world. 26. Trade Grows/The Silk Road II. Trading a. Most peoples needs were met on the Manor but still bartered for other goods they wanted that were unavailable on the manor b. Local guilds set up tents and stalls to sell goods at many fairs. c. To serve these fairs, European trade routes linked up with Muslim trade routes, and the Silk Road. 27. d. Goods from other lands would reach the trader through a series of middlemen. e. On the Silk Road, caravans toto China carried ivory, gold, and precious stones. f. On the Silk Road, caravans fromfrom China carried fur, silk, and ceramics. 28. The Plague III. Bubonic Plague a. Epidemic that killed 1/3 of the European population between 1347-1352 b. First seen in China. c. First European case in Genoa, Italy, a seaport town. i. Because of traveling sailors, it then spread to many different areas. d. Fewer people (due to the deaths from the plague) led top serfs being more valuable to the lords and able to move up in society.

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