the late middle ages- 1250 to 1500 ad. the black death
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The Late Middle Ages-1250 to 1500 AD
The Black Death
1347-Year of CalamityErupted in the Gobi Desert in China and may be due to the LIAAfter killing around 35 million in Asia, the disease, later to be called the Black Death, enters Europe at an Italian sea port in Oct 1347. By September 1348, it was in England. It followed trade routesAt least 25 million people died in Europe; a third of Englands population
Rampant PlagueThe Italian writer Boccaccio said its victims often "ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors in paradise." No one understood about the fleas or hygieneNo medicine seemed to workAfter the worst part was over (5 Years) the Plague continued for centuries thereafter sporadically and is still around today, but not active. According to one theory, most people have immunity today because their ancestors survived it. However, the plague was dormant before its eruption in 1347, so?
The only cures availablePeople burned all manner of incense: juniper, laurel, pine, beech, lemon leaves, rosemary, camphor, sulpher and othersHandkerchiefs were dipped in aromatic oils, to cover the face when going out. Towns rang church bells to drive the plague away. Talismans, charms and spells were used as remedies.
Reactions of people to the PlagueThe Flagellants-Bands of wandering people who whipped themselves to try and expiate the sins of Europe so God would call off the PlagueEat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we dieReassessment of faith placed in the ChurchScapegoating-Jews
Burning Jews during Plague
Results of the Plague:
Shortage of LaborMore labor saving devicesSpiritual faith shakenChurch loses some respect and powerRelationships between the upper and lower classes changeSurviving workers can demand better wagesClass conflictOpen revolt
How would life be different if the Plague had never come to Europe in 1347?For Europe?For America?For you?
Are there correlations with the Plague and any modern day events?
Life and Culture in the Middle Ages
Medieval GuildsGuild HallCommercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices
Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmiths Shop
Crest of a Coopers Guild
Vernacular LanguageLatin is Language after Rome collapsed, at least for educated and upper classesThe peasants had their own languages which now become more accepted by everyone and are called vernacular. It is everyday speech. These languages are the roots of the words that Americans and Europeans speak today.
Middle and Modern EnglishThow seyst that droppyng houses, and eek smoke,And chidyng wyves maken men to flee Out of hir owene hous, a! benedicitee! What eyleth swich an old man for to chide?Thow seyst, we wyves wol oure vices hideTil we be fast, and thanne we wol hem shewe, Wel may that be a proverbe of a shrewe!You say that dripping eaves, and also smoke, And wives contentious, will make men to flee Out of their houses; ah, benedicite! What ails such an old fellow so to chide?You say that all we wives our vices hide Till we are married, then we show them well;That is a scoundrel's proverb, let me tell!Chaucers Canterbury Tales
Chaucers Friar and Wife of Bath
Dante -1265Latin was for scholarly workHowever, he used language of Tuscan common people to write poetry and it became language of all ItalyThe Divine Comedy or when I write a book I am not going to change the namesStory: Virgil and Beatrice guide Dante through hell, paradise and purgatory
Lucifer eating traitors at the bottom most level of Hell
Vernacular literatureTroubadours-lyrical poems set to music National epics-
The Song of Roland and The Ring Saga about national heroes
Fabliaux-short comic mocking storiesDramas-Mystery plays, morality plays,
Educational SystemMonasteries and small schools in cities teach for a feeTeachers guild is called universitas which is the basis of what word today?
Teachers could not leave the university, under penalty of death, or even go out of town without permission. They had to swear absolute obedience to the student-elected student rector, who at the behest of the general assembly could pass or change any rule. The students collected the fees, paid the salaries, and issued the working rules; if the teacher cut a class, he was fined; likewise, if he could not draw five students, if he skipped a chapter or a difficulty, of if he kept on talking after the ringing of the bell. At any time the lecturer could be interrupted by a beadle summoning him to appear before the rector and learn of his misdeeds.
As a historian of universities, Rashdall, puts it: "By means of the terrible power of boycotting which they could bring into play against an offending professor, the student clubs were masters of the situation".Want to be a teacher in the 1200s ?
Want to be a student in the 1200s?Constant violent fighting to settle debatesMoney a huge problem Students rooms were rented out to gain extra money: usually to prostitutesAll boys; 13 -15 years of ageCommon reports of chaos in the classroomTeacher had to be 20Teacher could beat lazy students University ruled by cliques-led to constant manipulations, shady deals, lying, jealousy
Scholasticism- the marriage of faith and reasonAbelard-Pointed out many problems with Church writings and doctrine and argued that reason and faith were irreconcilable. A great rebel and made enemies every where he went. Got a Canons niece pregnant and was castrated. Did not leave the Church though.Thomas Aquinas -Wrote how Church doctrine was logical and could be arrived at by faith and reason. Basis of Roman Catholic Church today.
Heloise and Abelards Tomb
ScienceMinimal advancement in scholarly areasPractical Knowledge increases Winches, pulleys. ships, iron plows, yokes, windmills, waterwheels are all improvedArabs preserved the Science of the Greeks but Europeans had little interest in itMath and optics were of some interest1500s Scientific exploration begins again
Art and architectureRomanesqueDark, dome, Heavy look and feelLow to the groundFrescosRelief sculpture
GothicSoaring spiresMore glassMore lightSpiresFlying buttressesColorStatues of Holy Family and Saints
Middle Ages Stained Glass
Gargoyles of Notre Dame
The Growth of European Nations
I said we had 9 days, 20 hours and 53 seconds until the 100 years are upWhat did you say?
Patriotism As manors decline, peoples loyalties shift to that of a larger unit, the city, then the kingdom. People begin to develop a national identity and the idea of a nation state is born. People are increasingly loyal to a country
The 100 Years WarBasically Edward II of England laid claim to the French throne and the French said not in this life. Their respective offspring continued to have conflicts over this issue for about a 100 years
Results of the War in EnglandNew weapons made larger scale war and longer range war easierCastles no longer as safeKnights could not win over longbows and gunpowderSmaller guns begin to be used and increases causalitiesFeudalism is getting its deathblowParliament s power grows because the King needs them to finance his wars. They obtain the power to approve all taxationThe nobles are increasingly fewer and more dependent on the KingGovernment is centralizingChurch is losing more of its power
The French and the 100 years of WarFought on their landStarvation and disease prevalentKings lost some power as a resultInfighting amongst the two branches of the royal family Burgundy and Orleans Joan Of Arc
Visions and Voices save a city and crown a King
Joans Martyrdom results in renewed Patriotism and France drives out the English
Frances ParliamentPhilip IV or the Fair organizes Estates General 4 estates of society to help King ruleNever worked wellNever gained enough rights to be taken seriouslyConsequently Power is in the King first and nobles secondlyFrench peasants have minimal rights as compared to England
Back on home turf, English War of the Roses Henry VII defeats Richard III at Bosworth Field (My kingdom for a horse)WhiteversusRedThe Tudor Dynasty begins
Spain Until 1236, under the domination of Muslim Moors but not willinglyConstant fighting against the Moorish holdings by the Spaniards drives them back towards AfricaAs of 1236, only Granada held by Moors but the country is not unitedIsabella and Ferdinand chase out the last Moorish caliph and unite Spain as one countrydo not cry for as a woman for that which you could not hold as a man
Ferdinand and Isabella